Comorbidity and its Impact in Adult Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Primary Care Perspective
ABSTRACT The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature relevant to the primary care practitioner concerning comorbidity and its impact on diagnosis and treatment efficacy in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A MEDLINE literature review was performed using the keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; psychiatric comorbidity; bipolar disorder; major depressive disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; conduct disorder; and substance use disorder. The authors assessed and summarized literature identified as relevant to primary care practitioners. Results demonstrated high rates of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with ADHD. These comorbid disorders, coupled with the differing characteristics of ADHD symptoms in adults versus children, may complicate accurate diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Controlled clinical trials indicate that the presence of comorbidity does not substantially alter the safety and efficacy of ADHD pharmacotherapy and that treatment of ADHD can sometimes improve symptoms of the comorbid disorder. Although rates of psychiatric comorbidity are high in adults with ADHD, available data suggest that the benefits of pharmacotherapy for ADHD are not compromised by the presence of psychiatric comorbidity.
- SourceAvailable from: Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the selegiline treatment compared to methylphenidate (MPH) in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty subjects, aged 6-15 years, boys and girls, who were diagnosed as having ADHD, using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), were randomly assigned to receive either selegiline or MPH for 60 days. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Scale (ADHS) administered at baseline and on days 14, 28, 42, and 60 following the commencement of treatment. Side effects were also rated. There were no significant differences between sex, age, weight, and ethnicity of participants in the 2 groups. Both groups showed a significant improvement over the 60 days of treatment resulting from the teachers' and parents' ADHS scores across the treatment. Following the trial, MPH did not effect greater mean improvement as a result of the parents' or teachers' ADHS scores than selegiline. Thus, selegiline appears to be effective and well tolerated for ADHD in children and adolescents.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 02/2004; 14(3):418-25. DOI:10.1089/cap.2004.14.418 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . Method: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. Results: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . Conclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies . Keywords: Adult, Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, Methylphenidate, Selegiline,
- Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie Psychologie und Psychotherapie 01/2010; 58(1):23-34. DOI:10.1024/1661-4747.a000003 · 1.99 Impact Factor