Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
ABSTRACT A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk.
We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Between 1992 and 2003, information on diet was collected from 319,826 women. Disease hazard ratios were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
Breast cancer cases (n = 7119) were observed during 8.8 y (median) of follow-up. No consistent association was found between breast cancer risk and the consumption of any of the food groups under study, when analyzed by both categorical and continuous exposure variable models. High processed meat consumption was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk in the categorical model (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.07). Subgroup analyses suggested an association with butter consumption, limited to premenopausal women (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.53; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.21). Between-country heterogeneity was found for red meat (Q statistic = 18.03; P = 0.05) and was significantly explained (P = 0.023) by the proportion of meat cooked at high temperature.
We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, so it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find cohort studies or case control studies that evaluated the relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk. A comprehensive meta-analysis software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. 13 studies were included. The meta-analysis results showed that egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed egg consumption was also associated with increased breast cancer risk based on cohort studies (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08), among European population (RR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.09), Asian population (RR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18), postmenopausal population (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.02-1.10), and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week (RR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.17), but not in case-control studies (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.97-1.15), among American population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.94-1.16), premenopausal population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.98-1.11) and those who consumed ≥1, <2/week (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.97-1.11) or >5 eggs/week (RR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.88-1.06). Egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk among the European, Asian and postmenopausal population and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week.Breast Cancer 02/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SETTING: Health professionals in the United States.PARTICIPANTS: 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report.RESULTS: We documented 2830 cases of breast cancer during 20 years of follow-up. Higher intake of total red meat was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer overall (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.40; Ptrend=0.01, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake). However, higher intakes of poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and nuts were not related to breast cancer overall. When the association was evaluated by menopausal status, higher intake of poultry was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (0.73, 0.58 to 0.91; Ptrend=0.02, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake) but not in premenopausal women (0.93, 0.78 to 1.11; Ptrend=0.60, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake). In estimating the effects of exchanging different protein sources, substituting one serving/day of legumes for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer among all women (0.85, 0.73 to 0.98) and a 19% lower risk among premenopausal women (0.81, 0.66 to 0.99). Also, substituting one serving/day of poultry for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 17% lower risk of breast cancer overall (0.83, 0.72 to 0.96) and a 24% lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (0.76, 0.59 to 0.99). Furthermore, substituting one serving/day of combined legumes, nuts, poultry, and fish for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 14% lower risk of breast cancer overall (0.86, 0.78 to 0.94) and premenopausal breast cancer (0.86, 0.76 to 0.98).CONCLUSION: Higher red meat intake in early adulthood may be a risk factor for breast cancer, and replacing red meat with a combination of legumes, poultry, nuts and fish may reduce the risk of breast cancer.BMJ Clinical Research 06/2014; 348:g3437. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between obesity, diet, physical activity and breast cancer in Thai women, we conducted a case control study with 1,130 cases and 1,142 controls. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and a structured questionnaire was performed by trained interviewers to collect information on demographic and anthropometric data, reproductive and medical history, residential history, physical activity and occupation as well as dietary habits. A significant positive association with an increased risk of breast cancer was observed in women body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 mg/m2 (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.07-1.65), the risk being higher in postmenopausal women (OR=1.67, 95%CI 1.24-2.25). In addition, underweight BMI at ages 10 and 20 years showed an inverse association in all women (OR=0.70, 95%CI 0.56-0.88 and OR=0.74, 95%CI 0.59-0.93, respectively) and in those with a premenopausal status (OR=0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93 and OR=0.76, 95%CI 0.56- 0.99, respectively). Regular exercise was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.68-0.98). Interestingly, analysis by type of activity revealed significant protective effects for women who reported the highest levels of walking for shopping (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.38-0.88). High consumption of vegetables and fruit were associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of animal fat showed an increased risk in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our results indicate that obesity and high consumption of animal fat are associated with breast cancer risk, particularly in postmenopausal women, while recreational physical activity has protective effects. It seems that primary prevention of breast cancer should be promoted in an integrated manner. Effective strategies need to be identified to engage women in healthy lifestyles.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2013; 14(11):7023-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor