Article

Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.5). 07/2009; 90(3):602-12. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27173
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk.
We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Between 1992 and 2003, information on diet was collected from 319,826 women. Disease hazard ratios were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
Breast cancer cases (n = 7119) were observed during 8.8 y (median) of follow-up. No consistent association was found between breast cancer risk and the consumption of any of the food groups under study, when analyzed by both categorical and continuous exposure variable models. High processed meat consumption was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk in the categorical model (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.07). Subgroup analyses suggested an association with butter consumption, limited to premenopausal women (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.53; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.21). Between-country heterogeneity was found for red meat (Q statistic = 18.03; P = 0.05) and was significantly explained (P = 0.023) by the proportion of meat cooked at high temperature.
We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk.

1 Bookmark
 · 
88 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, so it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find cohort studies or case control studies that evaluated the relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk. A comprehensive meta-analysis software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. 13 studies were included. The meta-analysis results showed that egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed egg consumption was also associated with increased breast cancer risk based on cohort studies (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08), among European population (RR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.09), Asian population (RR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18), postmenopausal population (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.02-1.10), and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week (RR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.17), but not in case-control studies (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.97-1.15), among American population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.94-1.16), premenopausal population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.98-1.11) and those who consumed ≥1, <2/week (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.97-1.11) or >5 eggs/week (RR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.88-1.06). Egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk among the European, Asian and postmenopausal population and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week.
    Breast Cancer 02/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SETTING: Health professionals in the United States.PARTICIPANTS: 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report.RESULTS: We documented 2830 cases of breast cancer during 20 years of follow-up. Higher intake of total red meat was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer overall (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.40; Ptrend=0.01, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake). However, higher intakes of poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and nuts were not related to breast cancer overall. When the association was evaluated by menopausal status, higher intake of poultry was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (0.73, 0.58 to 0.91; Ptrend=0.02, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake) but not in premenopausal women (0.93, 0.78 to 1.11; Ptrend=0.60, for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake). In estimating the effects of exchanging different protein sources, substituting one serving/day of legumes for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer among all women (0.85, 0.73 to 0.98) and a 19% lower risk among premenopausal women (0.81, 0.66 to 0.99). Also, substituting one serving/day of poultry for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 17% lower risk of breast cancer overall (0.83, 0.72 to 0.96) and a 24% lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (0.76, 0.59 to 0.99). Furthermore, substituting one serving/day of combined legumes, nuts, poultry, and fish for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 14% lower risk of breast cancer overall (0.86, 0.78 to 0.94) and premenopausal breast cancer (0.86, 0.76 to 0.98).CONCLUSION: Higher red meat intake in early adulthood may be a risk factor for breast cancer, and replacing red meat with a combination of legumes, poultry, nuts and fish may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
    BMJ Clinical Research 01/2014; 348:g3437. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research on the role of red meat and poultry consumption in breast carcinogenesis is inconclusive, but the evidence in African-American (AA) women is lacking. The association between consuming meat and breast cancer risk was examined in the Women's Circle of Health Study involving 803 AA cases, 889 AA controls, 755 Caucasian cases, and 701 Caucasian controls. Dietary information was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models adjusting for potential covariates. Comparing the fourth versus the first quartiles, among Caucasian women, processed meat (OR = 1.48; 95 % CI 1.07-2.04), unprocessed red meat (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.01-1.94), and poultry intakes (OR = 1.42; 95 % CI 1.01-1.99) increased breast cancer risk. Risk associated with poultry intake was more dominant in premenopausal women (OR = 2.33; 95 % CI 1.44-3.77) and for women with ER- tumors (OR = 2.55; 95 % CI 1.29-5.03) in the Caucasian group. Associations in AA women were mostly null except for a significant increased risk trend with processed meat consumption for ER+ tumors (OR = 1.36; 95 % CI 0.94-1.97, p trend = 0.04). Overall, associations between breast cancer risk and consumption of red meat and poultry were of different magnitude in AA and Caucasian women, with further differences noted by menopausal and hormone receptor status in Caucasian women. This is the first study to examine racial differences in meat and breast cancer risk and represents some of the first evidence in AA women.
    Cancer Causes and Control 10/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor