Impact of genistein on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development.
ABSTRACT Genistein (GNT), a natural isoflavone compound found in soy products, affects diverse cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and cell death. An earlier study by our group showed that GNT has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in their subsequent development in vitro. Here, we further investigate the effects of GNT on oocyte maturation, and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. GNT induced a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryo development. Treatment of oocytes with GNT during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. With the aid of an in vivo mouse model, we showed that consumption of drinking water containing GNT led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization, as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Moreover, our findings support a degree of selective inhibition of retinoic acid receptors in blastocysts treated with GNT during oocyte maturation. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of GNT on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and sequential embryonic development.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5-10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5-10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 06/2014; 15(6):10751-10765. DOI:10.3390/ijms150610751 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment with resveratrol at concentrations greater than 0.5 μmol/L resulted in the arrest of mouse embryo development at the two-cell stage. Resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in embryos by evaluating morphologic features by using the bromodeoxyuridine assay and acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining. Resveratrol was found to significantly increase the expressions of p53, p21, Atf3, smac/Diablo, Bax, Bak1, Bok, and Noxa mRNA in the embryos, whereas Cullin 3 and Cdk1 expressions were decreased. Furthermore, active p53 positive signal in embryos arrested at the two-cell stage was localized in the nucleus, whereas no active p53 signal was observed in control embryos. Pretreatment with pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, downregulated active p53 in two-cell embryo nuclei and ameliorated approximately 50% of the embryonic developmental defect caused by resveratrol. The findings of the present study, therefore, suggest that pifithrin-α could be used as an effective cytoprotective agent against a reproductive toxin such as resveratrol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Theriogenology 11/2014; 83(5). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.11.023 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the effect of Papaver rhoeas L. extract on in vitromaturation (IVM) of sheep oocytes. Sheep ovaries collected from a local abattoir were trans-ported to the laboratory within 2 h after slaughter. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs)were aspirated from follicles (2–6 mm in diameter). Good quality COCs were selected andcultured in TCM 199 supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 and 200 �g/ml of P. rhoeasextract. The COCs were incubated at 38.5◦C in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2in airfor 24 h. After the incubation period, expansion of cumulus cells and the nuclear status ofthe oocytes were assessed by phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst 33258, respectively.There were no significant differences between treatments in the percentage of cumulusexpansion (P > 0.05). The percentage of arrested oocytes at germinal vesicle (GV) stage inthe control group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other treatments. There were sig-nificant (P < 0.05) differences between all concentrations of extract and the control group inthe percentage of in vitro maturated oocytes to metaphase II (MII) stage. The oocytes treatedwith 50 �g/ml extract achieved the highest percentage of MII stage compared to the con-trol (P < 0.05); however, no significant difference observed between 25, 50 and 100 �g/mlextract. In conclusion, the results of this study show that supplementation of appropriateconcentrations of P. rhoeas extract (50 �g/ml) in maturation medium improve the sheepoocyte maturation rate. Moreover, effects of P. rhoeas extract on oocyte maturation weredependent on the extract concentration in the maturation medium.Small Ruminant Research 09/2013; · 1.10 Impact Factor