Impact of genistein on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development.
ABSTRACT Genistein (GNT), a natural isoflavone compound found in soy products, affects diverse cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and cell death. An earlier study by our group showed that GNT has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in their subsequent development in vitro. Here, we further investigate the effects of GNT on oocyte maturation, and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. GNT induced a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryo development. Treatment of oocytes with GNT during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. With the aid of an in vivo mouse model, we showed that consumption of drinking water containing GNT led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization, as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Moreover, our findings support a degree of selective inhibition of retinoic acid receptors in blastocysts treated with GNT during oocyte maturation. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of GNT on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and sequential embryonic development.
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ABSTRACT: Smoking is still considered to be mainly a male problem. However, it is estimated that there are approximately 250 million women worldwide who smoke cigarettes and millions more women who use smokeless tobacco products. This article addresses the many facets of tobacco use among women. The aim of the paper is to increase recognition among clinicians and researchers of the specific characteristics of female tobacco use. Together with providing epidemiological data on the distribution of tobacco use among women and data from population-based analyses on sociocultural factors that influence it, the article presents tobacco use during pregnancy as a particularly important public health problem. Further, the article points out sex-related differences (ie, physiological, psychological, or behavioral) between male and female tobacco use. A special focus is on the important role of ovarian hormones. Adverse effects of tobacco use to women and their children as well as tobacco-related morbidities and comorbidities are presented, and women's greater susceptibility to tobacco constituents as compared to men is stressed. Awareness of these differences can contribute to improvement of the effectiveness of smoking cessation programs addressed both to the specific female population and to an individual smoking woman.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2014; 20:153-62. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits or vegetables that has antioxidant properties and acts as a free radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of quercetin on porcine oocyte nuclear maturation and embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation. We then evaluated the antioxidant activities of quercetin by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte maturation. Immature oocytes were untreated or treated with 1, 10, and 50 μg/mL quercetin during in vitro maturation (IVM). Quercetin treatment did not improve oocyte nuclear maturation, but significantly higher blastocyst rates (p < 0.05) of parthenogenetically activated oocytes were achieved when the IVM medium was supplemented with an adequate concentration of quercetin (1 μg/mL). However, cleavage rates and blastocyst cell numbers were not affected. Oocytes treated with 1 or 10 μg/mL quercetin had significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of ROS than the control and group treated with the highest concentration of queretin (50 μg/mL). Moreover, this highest concentration was detrimental to oocyte nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation. Based on our findings, we concluded that exogenous quercetin reduces ROS levels during oocyte maturation and is beneficial for subsequent embryo development.Journal of veterinary science (Suwŏn-si, Korea) 02/2013; · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Catechins, a family of polyphenols found in tea, evoke various responses, including cell death. However, the side effects of these compounds, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been characterized in detail. A previous study by our group showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin highly abundant in green tea, induces different cell-death modes in MCF-7 cells, depending on the treatment dosage. In the current study, we examined the effects of EGCG on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro and in vivo implantation by embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 25-50 μM of EGCG exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rate of blastocysts pretreated with EGCG was lower than that of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 25-50 μM of EGCG led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. EGCG appeared to induce injury in mouse blastocysts through intrinsic apoptotic signaling processes to impair sequent embryonic development. These results collectively highlight the potential of EGCG to induce embryonic cytotoxicity.Drug and Chemical Toxicology 10/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor