High-risk pregnancy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a case of ectopic, abdominal pregnancy with birth of a live, term infant, and a case of gestational diabetes complicated by pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT Cases of abdominal pregnancy, in the form of intra-abdominal mummified fetuses, have been described in nonhuman primates. Gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia are common pregnancy complications in women.
Two timed-bred rhesus monkeys had high-risk pregnancies, an abdominal pregnancy with delivery of a live term infant, and a case of gestational diabetes that later developed pre-eclampsia.
The monkey that had abdominal pregnancy later died from septic peritonitis. The monkey had a colonic adenocarcinoma that may have allowed leakage of intestinal contents into the abdomen. Her infant was fostered to another female and survived. The monkey with gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia was treated with a regimen similar to that used in women, and a live infant was delivered at day 157 of gestation by Caesarian section.
These cases underscore the value of timed-breeding and the similarities between pregnancy complications in women and in nonhuman primates.
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ABSTRACT: The abdominal pregnancy is a rare, but life threatening complication of ectopic embryo implantation. Only three cases of abdominal pregnancy have been previously described in primates: in a squirrel monkey, owl monkey and in a rhesus macaque. A 14-year-old wild-caught olive baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) was diagnosed at the ultrasound examination with advanced gestational age extrauterine pregnancy. At the initial laparotomy and necropsy the diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was made on Studdiford's criteria. This case indicates the possibility of developing a model for further study of different types of ectopic pregnancy and indicates a cesarean section as a risk factor for abdominal pregnancy.Journal of Medical Primatology 03/2004; 33(1):55-9. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in an aged (21-year-old) pregnant rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta); she was hyperglycemic and had minimal glucose clearance in an intravenous glucose tolerance test (iv-GTT). An overweight (840 g) dead full-term fetus was delivered by cesarean section. A second iv-GTT conducted 3 months later revealed impaired glucose tolerance. While pregnant, the monkey was hyperinsulinemic and showed minimal secretory response to the glucose load. When tested postpartum, the fasting insulin was only slightly elevated, but the insulin response to glucose was still lacking.Journal of Medical Primatology 02/1985; 14(5):237-44. · 1.30 Impact Factor
Article: Matrilineal transmission of birth weight in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) across several generations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate how secular trends in maternal weight characteristics, in response to living in a permissive laboratory environment, influence intergenerational trends in birth weight in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and to assess the role of female offspring in perpetuating these matrilineal traits. A multigenerational data set was used to evaluate the relationship between familial and contemporaneous pregnancy factors and infant birth weight across several generations. These records provided 25 years of information on the maternal and paternal ancestries and reproductive histories, gestation lengths, and birth weights for 1321 infants. Pregnancy weight gain, gestation length, and maternal familial factors were the most important predictors of infant birth weight, followed by infant sex, paternity, and maternal pregravid weight (P<.001 for each variable). Furthermore, the trend in fetal growth across generations followed a matrilineal pattern of transmission that was much more pronounced for female than male offspring (P<.001). Although secular increases in maternal pregravid weight and pregnancy weight gain were detected, the upward shift in female birth weight was not explained solely by these changes in maternal weight parameters. With the delivery of ample nutrition and health care in a laboratory setting, there was a dramatic increase in the birth weight of daughters within certain matrilines, providing evidence that an intrauterine mechanism transmitted through female progeny can regulate fetal development. Further, the upward trend in female birth weight had a beneficial influence on the reproductive performance of female descendants in those lineages.Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/1999; 94(1):128-34. · 4.73 Impact Factor