Pregnancy, delivery, and outcome for the child in maternal epilepsy

Department of Clinical Medicine, Section for Neurology, University of Bergen, Norway.
Epilepsia (Impact Factor: 4.58). 06/2009; 50(9):2130-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02147.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate pregnancy, delivery, and child outcome in an unselected population of women with both treated and untreated epilepsy.
In the compulsory Medical Birth Registry of Norway, all 2,861 deliveries by women with epilepsy recorded from 1999-2005 were compared to all 369,267 nonepilepsy deliveries in the same period.
The majority (66%, n = 1900) in the epilepsy group did not use antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy. A total of 961 epilepsy-pregnancies were exposed to AEDs. Compared to nonepilepsy controls, AED-exposed infants were more often preterm (p = 0.01), and more often had birth weight <2,500 g (p < 0.001), head circumference <2.5 percentile (p < 0.001), and low Apgar score (p = 0.03). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (<10 percentile) occurred more frequently in both AED-exposed (p = 0.05) and unexposed (p = 0.02) epilepsy-pregnancies. Frequency of major congenital malformations (MCMs) was 2.8% (n = 81) in the epilepsy group versus 2.5% in controls (p = 0.3). Increased risk for MCMs could be demonstrated only for exposure to valproate (5.6%, p = 0.005) and AED polytherapy (6.1%, p = 0.02). Neonatal spina bifida was not significantly increased, but was a major indication for elective pregnancy termination among women with epilepsy. Cesarean section was performed more often in maternal epilepsy, regardless of AED-exposure (p < 0.001).
Adverse pregnancy and birth outcome in women with epilepsy is mainly confined to AED-exposed pregnancies, although some risks are associated also with untreated epilepsy. The risk for congenital malformations was lower than previously reported. This could be due to a shift in AED selection, folic acid supplement, or possibly reflect the true risks in an unselected epilepsy population.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenicity is suspected to be the main cause of impaired development in children of women with epilepsy. However, many factors may confound the reported risks. The purpose of this review is to characterize the epilepsy cohort in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and show how it can be used to detangle various risk factors for adverse outcome in children of mothers with epilepsy. Methods: MoBa is a large, long-term prospective, family-based cohort study. The database is linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The epilepsy cohort consists of mothers and their children representing more than 700 pregnancies. Blood samples were obtained from the mother during pregnancy and from the umbilical cord after delivery, and AED concentrations were measured. Validated screening tools determined the frequency of maternal confounding risk factors and adverse offspring outcomes. Risk estimates were reported as adjusted odds ratios with confidence intervals using the remaining MoBa cohort as a reference (n=107,597). Outcome in offspring of women with epilepsy without AED treatment in pregnancy and of fathers with epilepsy were used to separate the effect of epilepsy from the effect of in utero exposure to AEDs. Results: Socioeconomic and psychiatric risk factors for adverse offspring outcomes were more frequent in mothers with epilepsy. The frequency of adverse offspring outcome was increased at 6, 18 and 36 months for verbal, motor and social development. Children of women with epilepsy without AED treatment and of fathers with epilepsy were generally similar to children of women without epilepsy. Conclusion: Children of mothers with epilepsy are at risk of adverse outcomes. AED exposure emerges as the most important risk factor.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective – The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy and the perinatal outcome, retrospectively. Methods – We examined the obstetric and fetal outcomes among women with epilepsy (WWE), who were followed-up at the Department of Neurology, and who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (n=91) between 31th December 2000 and 31th March 2014. Statistical comparisons of different obstetric and fetal parameters on a sample of 91 WWE and 182 non-WWE were assessed by the chi-square-test, the independent sample t-test. Results – The rate of major congenital malformations (MCMS) among the newborns of all AEDs exposed mothers was 7.69%. There were three peaks of seizures: during the third trimester, during delivery and in the puerperium. The prevalence of miscarriages, post-term birth and the rate of caesarean section were significantly higher among the WWE than among the non-WWE (p=0.001; p<0.001; p=0.02). Parameters of neonates (birth weight, birth length, head-, and chest circumference) were significantly different between the WWE group and the non-WWE group (p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001) Conclusions – In contrast with recent publications, there were significant differences in the parameters of neonates between the two groups. Our results are in accordance with those of previous studies from the aspect of AED-related MCM, the elevated risk of miscarriages and pre-existing hypertension.
    Ideggyógyászati szemle 05/2015; 68(3-4):105-112. · 0.34 Impact Factor


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