The Italian version of the Response Evaluation Measure-71

Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
Comprehensive Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.25). 07/2009; 50(4):369-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.010
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Response Evaluation Measure (REM-71), a 71-item self-report measure previously developed for the assessment of defenses in adults and adolescents. The authors also examined the differences in the use of defenses based on sex and age (early adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood), and the association between defenses, psychosocial health, and psychologic distress in a large community sample.
The Italian version of REM-71 was obtained through back-translation and administered to 1648 (1020 female subjects, mean age = 19.5 years, SD = +/-5.77) community subjects, aged between 13 and 68 years, voluntarily recruited among high school and university students in Milan, Italy, and the surrounding area. All subjects completed a self-report measure to assess demographic variables and satisfaction with life. A subsample (n = 1197) completed the Italian version of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised to assess symptoms of psychologic distress.
Results were highly consistent with those obtained in the original English version of the REM-71 and included satisfactory internal consistency of the measure. Factor analyses yielded 2 principal factors that showed overall stability across age and sex subgroups. Factor 1 and factor 2 defenses were significantly correlated, in line with theoretical expectations, with positive and negative aspects of various domains of life.
Results provide further support for the structure and validity of the REM-71 as a useful instrument for the assessment of defenses in adolescents and adults and suggest no major cross-cultural differences in the organization of these defenses.

Download full-text


Available from: Antonio Prunas, Sep 30, 2015
1 Follower
115 Reads
  • Source
    • "Participants completed the Italian version of the instrument [5] which was obtained through back-translation and, in a preliminary study, tested in a sample of bilingual subjects to assess score correlations between the two versions [31]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The aim of the present study is to explore the association between defensive functioning (as assessed through the REM-71) and psychiatric symptoms in a large sample from the community, and the moderating role of age and gender on that association. Furthermore, we explored the concurrent validity of REM-71 as compared with "caseness" (SCL-90-R). Methods. The REM-71 was administered together with SCL-90-R to a community sample of 1,060 Italian high-school and university students (mean age=19.01±3.85 years; 66.7% females). Results. Factor 1 defenses were by far the primary contributors to the predictor synthetic variable (i.e. association between defenses and psychopathology). Gender proved to moderate the association between immature defenses and symptoms. Using ROC analysis, we derived a cut-off score for Factor 1 defenses. Conclusions. Our results support the adoption of the REM-71 as a useful instrument for the assessment of defensive array and psychopathological liability in adolescents and adults.
    Comprehensive Psychiatry 10/2014; 55(7):1696-702. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.06.008 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "First of all, criticism has been raised against the use of self-report instruments for the assessment of defensive style [45], on the ground that a self-rating scale cannot provide reliable information on a psychological construct that is assumed to operate outside of the individual's awareness. However, like other self-rated instruments, the REM-71 is not designed to collect information on defenses per se, but rather on the behavioural counterparts of defensive functioning, on which every individual can reasonably provide a reliable account; also, the REM-71 was shown to possess good psychometric properties in both the original version and in its Italian adaptation [33] [34]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In spite of the potential clinical utility of defense mechanisms in the assessment of gender identity disorder patients as candidates to sex reassignment surgery, there is paucity of research in this field. The aim of the present study is therefore to ascertain whether the defensive profile of MtF and FtM transsexuals seeking sex reassignment surgery can be defined more primitive, immature and maladaptive than that of the two control groups. We compared the defensive profiles as assessed through the REM-71 (Steiner et al., 2001) of 104 MtF transsexuals, 46 FtM transsexuals and two control groups of males and females. Our results show that MtF transsexuals present an overall more primitive defensive array than that of both control groups, while FtMs show a profile not dissimilar from that of both control groups. Our results support the hypothesis that MtF transsexuals are characterized by higher proneness to psychopathology than the general population and show a more immature level of psychological functioning than FtM transsexuals.
    Comprehensive Psychiatry 04/2014; 55(4):966-71. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.009 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Factor 2, by contrast, comprises seven defenses that attenuate unwelcome reality, allowing more adaptive functioning. We considered estimated values ≥4.4 30 as indicating a potentially dysfunctional way of using defense mechanisms. Mean values of defense mechanisms obtained through questionnaires were compared with those of the standard population 30. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is much evidence demonstrating that psychosocial interventions in caregivers and oncological staff produce an improvement in their patients' quality of life. The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate the effect of a new approach in promoting more functional ways to face stressful situations in the constellation of people around patients: caregivers, physicians and nurses. Thirty-four subjects were divided into three groups: 10 caregivers, 11 physicians, and 13 nurses. A "Balint Group" method modified according to a mindfulness technique was used as the intervention. Three assessment tools were administered to the participants at baseline, during, and after completion of the study: the Response Evaluation Measure (REM-71), the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P), and the Group Climate Questionnaire (GCQ). Mean values of defense mechanisms determined by the REM-71 were compared with those of the standard population. At baseline, we observed a prevalence of immature defenses in the three groups, with mean values above those in the standard population. After the psychological intervention, a tendency to normalization of the mean values was observed, indicating the development of more adaptive ways of using defense mechanisms and the effectiveness of the intervention. Group climate, assessed through the GCQ, showed an increase in the "Engagement" factor and a decline in the "Conflict" factor in all groups. This study suggests that group treatment focused on changing personal responses to stressful situations can induce more adaptive strategies enabling caregivers, hematologists, and nurses to help patients better and thereby improve their quality of life.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2014; 3(1). DOI:10.1002/cam4.163 · 2.50 Impact Factor
Show more