Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor in goat ovaries and improvement of in vitro caprine preantral follicle survival and growth with VEGF.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the survival and growth of goat preantral follicles after in vitro culture and to verify the expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 in goat ovaries. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimal essential medium (MEM) with different concentrations of VEGF (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200 ng mL(-1)). Non-cultured (fresh control) and cultured tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. The results showed that 200 ng mL(-1) VEGF resulted in a similar percentage of normal preantral follicles after 1 and 7 days of culture compared with control. Compared with basic culture medium alone, an increase in follicular and oocyte diameters was observed in the presence of 10 ng mL(-1) VEGF after 7 days culture. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days culture in the presence of 200 ng mL(-1) VEGF. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 in oocytes and granulosa cells of all follicular stages, except in granulosa cells of primordial follicles. In conclusion, the present study has shown that VEGF maintains follicular ultrastructural integrity and promotes follicular growth. In addition, VEGFR-2 is expressed in oocytes of caprine ovarian follicles at all developmental stages and in granulosa cells of developing follicles.
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ABSTRACT: Preantral follicles are the majority of the ovarian follicle population and their use as a source of homogeneous oocytes for bovine reproductive biotechnologies could result in a substantial advance in this field. However, while in other species embryos and offspring have been produced, in bovine species the results have been limited to the follicular activation of small (primordial) preantral follicles and formation of early antral follicles from large (secondary) preantral follicles after in vitro culture. Therefore, this review will highlight the basic aspects of bovine folliculogenesis by focusing on preantral follicles, the methods of harvesting preantral follicles, the main results from in vitro follicular culture during the last 20 years, and the potential candidate substances (basic supplements, growth factors, and hormones) for improving the efficiency of in vitro follicle growth.Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 08/2014; 12(1):78. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-A(165) (VEGF-A(165)) on the in vitro development of goat secondary preantral follicles. Preantral follicles (≥150 μm in diameter) were isolated from the ovaries of adult mixed-breed goats and individually cultured for 18 days in αMEM in the absence (control) or presence of VEGF-A(165) at concentrations of 10 ng/ml (VEGF10) and 100 ng/ml (VEGF100). Analyses of follicular survival, diameter, antrum formation and rate of daily growth were performed every 6 days. At the end of the culture period, morphologically normal oocytes (≥110 μm in diameter) were taken for in vitro maturation (IVM). The results demonstrated that all follicles presented oocytes and granulosa cells that were morphologically normal and after labeling with calcein-AM, high rates of oocyte viability were observed in all treatments. The follicular diameter and the growth rate achieved in the presence of VEGF10 were higher than those of the control. Both treatments with VEGF-A(165) showed higher rates of oocyte recovery for IVM when compared with the control. Moreover, only the addition of VEGF-A(165) permitted oocytes grown in vitro to reach metaphase II. Thus, the addition of VEGF-A(165) to the culture medium improves the development of goat preantral follicles cultured in vitro, allowing the production of mature oocytes.Cell and Tissue Research 11/2011; 346(2):273-81. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of six housekeeping genes, and the relative expression of growth factors (EGF, GDF-9, BMP-15, VEGF, FGF-2, BMP-6, IGF-1 and KL) and hormone receptors (FSH, LH and GH) in goat preantral follicles. To evaluate to stability of housekeeping genes micro-dissected fresh follicles (150-200 μm) as well as follicles that have been in vitro cultured for 12 days were used. In addition, isolated fresh follicles were used to compare expression of various growth factors and hormone receptors before culture. Both fresh and cultured follicles were subjected to total RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA. After amplification of cDNA by real-time PCR, the geNorm software program was used to evaluate the stability of glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin, β-actin, phosphoglycerokinase (PGK), 18S rRNA, ubiquitin (UBQ) and ribosomal protein 19 (RPL-19). In addition, follicular steady-state levels of mRNA from the various growth factors under study were compared. Results demonstrated that, in goat preantral follicles, UBQ and β-actin were the most suitable reference genes and thus could be used as parameters to normalize data from future in vitro studies. In contrast, 18S RNA appeared the least stable gene among the tested housekeeping genes. Analysis of mRNA for several hypophyseal hormone receptors in fresh preantral follicles showed significantly higher FSH-R mRNA levels than those of LH-R and GH-R, and no difference between GH-R and LH-R mRNA levels. In regard growth factor mRNA expression in goat preantral follicles, EGF mRNA levels appeared significantly lower than those of the other studied growth factors. Increasingly higher relative mRNA levels were observed for GDF-9, BMP-15, BMP-6, FGF-2, VEGF, Kl and IGF-1, successively. In conclusion, UBQ and β-actin are the most stable housekeeping genes in fresh and 12-days cultured caprine preantral follicles. Furthermore, in fresh follicles, high levels of FSH-R mRNA are detected while among eight growth factors, IGF-1 is the most highly expressed and EGF the weakest expressed compound.Zygote 02/2011; 19(1):71-83. · 1.50 Impact Factor