By investigating the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria from organic and conventional keeping systems of laying hens, it was to be determined to what extent these properties are influenced by the different systems. For this purpose, a total of 799 cloacal swabs and 800 egg samples were examined. Prevalences for all selected bacteria from cloacal swabs were much the same for both organic and caged birds: Listeria spp.1.3%[org] versus 1.6%[con]; Enterococcus spp. 95.5%[org] versus 97.5%[con]. Egg contents and eggshells were generally contaminated to a lesser extent, primarily with Enterococcus spp. Listeria isolates were susceptible to almost all tested antibiotics, only three Listeria innocua from conventional keepings were resistant to clindamycin; one isolate additionally to imipenem. High percentages of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to doxycycline and macrolides. Enterococcus faecium proved to have high resistance rates to clindamycin, fosfomycin and erythromycin; 9.1% were even resistant to the reserve antibiotic synercid. Further, Enterococcus spp. showed higher resistance rates to doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin and rifampicin. No glycopeptide resistant enterococci were detected. A correlation between keeping system and resistance/susceptibility rates could be demonstrated. In detail, E. faecalis from organic laying hen husbandries showed significant lower resistance prevalences to tylosin, streptomycin and doxycycline; susceptibility rates were higher for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Rifampicin and imipenem were more effective in isolates from conventional keepings (P < 0.05). The amounts of resistant isolates of the Enterococcus raffinosus from organic farms were significantly lower, the amounts of sensitive isolates were significantly higher than from conventional farms concerning eight antibiotics (P < 0.05). When comparing the susceptibility/resistance rates, as well as the mean minimum inhibitory concentrations values, the consistent tendency is that bacteria from organic layer flocks are more susceptible to antimicrobials. These results show that organic livestock farming plays a part in contributing to reduced antibiotic resistance.
"metal resistances on the same plasmid may explain the selection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci.   In addition to these characters, a number of putative virulence factors that highlight their opportunistic nature (aggregation substance , enterococcal surface protein, endocarditis antigen, gelatinase, cytolysin), have been described in enterococci isolated from nosocomial and food samples.     At the same time, the antibacterial activity due to the bacteriocin production may give the producing strains a further competitive advantage. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering the limited knowledge about the biological characters in enterococci isolated from surface waters, we investigated antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance, bacteriocin production, and some important virulence traits of 165 enterococci collected in water samples from Monte Cotugno Lake, the largest artificial basin built with earth in Europe. The species distribution of isolates was as follows: Enterococcus faecium (80%), Enterococcus faecalis (12.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3%), Enterococcus mundtii (1.8%), Enterococcus hirae (1.8%), Enterococcus durans (0.6%). All enterococci showed heavy metal resistance toward Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, were susceptible to Ag and Hg, and at the same time exhibited in large percentage (83.7%) resistance to one or more of the antibiotics tested. Relatively to virulence factor genes, 50.9% enterococci were positive for gelatinase (gelE), 10.9% for aggregation substance (agg), 12.7% and 66.6% for the cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), respectively. No amplicons were detected after PCR for cytolysin production (cylA, cylB and cylM) and enterococcal surface protein (esp) genes. Bacteriocin production was found in most of the isolates. Given that the waters of the Monte Cotugno Lake are used for different purposes, among which farming and recreational activities, they can contribute to spread enterococci endowed with virulence factors, and antibiotics and heavy metals resistance to humans.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2013; 48(8):939-46. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2013.762739 · 1.16 Impact Factor
"Miranda et al. (2008) isolated L. monocytogenes from conventionally and organically grown poultry and examined the antibiotic resistance patterns; conventionally grown poultry were resistant to four of the six antibiotics tested, whereas organically grown poultry (which were presumably not exposed to any antibiotics) were resistant to two of the six. Schwaiger et al. (2010) compared antibiotic resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from eggs from hens raised either conventionally or organically in Germany. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes listeriosis, a disease that mainly affects the immunocompromised, the elderly, infants, and pregnant women. Listeriosis has become increasingly common in the last 25 years since the first foodborne outbreak was noted. Treatment for listeriosis currently consists primarily of supportive therapy in conjunction with the use of intravenous antibiotics. Antibiotics have been commercially available for over 60 years for treatment of a myriad of clinical diseases. Bacteria resistant to antibiotics have been developing over this same period. This review seeks to elucidate the extent of antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes, the possible transmission mechanisms, and contributing factors to distribution of antibiotic resistance among Listeria species, and possible control strategies.
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