Ingroup perception and responses to stigma among persons with mental illness
ABSTRACT Mental illness stigma is common, but it is unclear why it affects some individuals more than others. We tested the hypothesis that the way persons with mental illness perceive their ingroup (people with mental illness) in terms of group value, group identification and entitativity (perception of the ingroup as a coherent unit) shapes their reaction to stigma.
Ingroup perceptions, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and reactions to stigma (educating or helping others, social performance, secrecy, social distance, hopelessness) were assessed among 85 people with mental illness using questionnaires and a standardized role-play test.
Controlling for depression and perceived discrimination, high group value and low perceived legitimacy of discrimination predicted positive reactions to stigma. High group identification and entitativity predicted positive reactions only in the context of high group value or low perceived legitimacy of discrimination.
Group value and perceived legitimacy of discrimination may be useful targets to help people with mental illness to better cope with stigma.
SourceAvailable from: Sibylle Metzler[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early detection of persons with first signs of emerging psychosis is regarded as a promising strategy to reduce the burden of the disease. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in early detection of psychosis and bipolar disorders, with a clear need for sufficient sample sizes in prospective research. The underlying brain network disturbances in individuals at risk or with a prodrome are complex and yet not well known. This paper provides the rationale and design of a prospective longitudinal study focused on at-risk states of psychosis and bipolar disorder. The study is carried out within the context of the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health services (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur Nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie). Persons at risk for psychosis or bipolar disorder between 13 and 35 years of age are examined by using a multi-level-approach (psychopathology, neuropsychology, genetics, electrophysiology, sociophysiology, magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy). The included adolescents and young adults have four follow-ups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. This approach provides data for a better understanding of the relevant mechanisms involved in the onset of psychosis and bipolar disorder, which can serve as targets for future interventions. But for daily clinical practice a practicable "early recognition" approach is required. The results of this study will be useful to identify the strongest predictors and to delineate a prediction model.Frontiers in Public Health 10/2014; 2:166. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00166
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mental disorders are associated with suicidality and with stigma. Many consequences of stigma, such as social isolation, unemployment, hopelessness or stress, are risk factors for suicidality. Research is needed on the link between stigma and suicidality as well as on anti-stigma interventions and their effects on suicidality.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2014; 205(4):257-9. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.145755 · 7.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stereotype awareness-or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public-is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT) is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA) in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls. Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis) were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form). In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA). In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings). CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117386. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117386 · 3.53 Impact Factor