Improving TNF as a cancer therapeutic: Tailor-made TNF fusion proteins with conserved antitumor activity and reduced systemic side effects
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is highly pleiotropic cytokine regulating diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis, but also survival. Because of its name-giving tumor necrosis-inducing capabilities, TNF has attracted attention very early for antitumor therapy. Although TNF is in clinical use for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma in isolated limb perfusion, its broad use in tumor therapy is prevented so far by its strong systemic proinflammatory effects. Nevertheless, over the past decade, a variety of tailor-made TNF variants have been developed with the aim to reduce TNFs systemic activity without losing its antitumoral effects. Here, we review the progress made toward improving the efficacy of TNF by genetic engineering, tumor targeting, and introduction of prodrug concepts.
- SourceAvailable from: Hrishikesh MehtaAlzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis-Core Concepts, Shifting Paradigms and Therapeutic Targets, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-690-4
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine with well known anticancer properties and is being utilized as anticancer agent for the treatment of patients with locally advanced solid tumors. However, TNF role in cancer biology is debated. In fact, in spite of the wealth of evidence supporting its antitumor activity, the cascade of molecular events underlying TNF-mediated tumor regression observed in vivo is still incompletely elucidated. Furthermore, some preclinical findings suggest that TNF may even promote cancer development and progression. With this work we intend to summarize the molecular biology of TNF (with particular regard to its tumor-related activities) and review the experimental and clinical evidence currently available describing the complex and sometime apparently conflicting relationship between this cytokine, cancer biology and antitumor therapy. We also propose a model to explain the dual effect of TNF based on the exposure time and cytokine levels reached within the tumor microenvironment. Finally, we overview recent research findings that might lead to new ways for exploiting the anticancer potential of TNF in the clinical setting.Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2010; 17(29):3337-3352. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recent and innovative strategy in cancer therapy is the activation of apoptosis in tumour cells specifically expressing death receptors (DR) belonging to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and including several members known since the early '90. Among these, those largely studied for clinical purpose are TNF, CD95, and TRAIL receptors. Promising results are expecting from ongoing phases I/II clinical trials proving the therapeutic efficacy of DR agonistic antibodies and/or recombinant proteins alone or in association to classic and novel chemotherapeutic drugs. However, two key issues need extensive studies, before clinical and safe applications of DRs as effective anticancer drugs can be accepted: i. DR-based cancer therapy must be selective and effective against a broad range of cancers and reduce excessive systemic toxicity toward normal cells and tumour resistance after recurrent treatments; ii. an improved knowledge of mechanisms of alternative signalling triggered by DR ligands and leading to cell survival and apoptotic resistance. Activation of survival pathways regulated by key factors, such as NF-kappaB, JNK, p38, ERK and PI(3)K are the focus of several studies revealing the dark side of DR signalling. The present review focuses on new insights in the signalling and clinical application of TNF, CD95 and TRAIL receptors.Biochemical pharmacology 03/2010; 80(5):674-82. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.03.011 · 4.65 Impact Factor