Risk Assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Water

University of Texas-Houston School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA.
Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.74). 02/2009; 201:71-115. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0032-6_3
Source: PubMed


Pseudomonads are a large group of free-living bacteria that live primarily in soil, seawater, and fresh water. They also colonize plants and animals, and are frequently found in home and clinical settings. Pseudomonads are highly versatile and can adapt to a wide range of habitats, and can even grow in distilled water. This adaptability accounts for their constant presence in the environment. They have an extensive impact on ecology, agriculture, and commerce. They are responsible for food spoilage and degradation of petroleum products and materials. In agriculture, pseudomonads rank among the most important plant pathogens. In normal healthy humans, they are responsible for eye and skin diseases. They also cause serious life-threatening illnesses in burn and surgical patients and in immunocompromised individuals. Contamination of recreational waters and tap water has been associated with outbreaks of Pseudomonas; however, the relative role water plays in the transmission of this bacterium to humans is still unclear. The goal of this review is to assess existing literature on the potential risks associated with waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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Available from: Charles Gerba, Oct 26, 2014
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    • "M.S. Rodriguez-Alvarez et al. / International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3 to common drinking and waste water disinfectants such as chlorine or chloramines, however, P. aeruginosa has a reputation for being resistant to some medical disinfection (Mena and Gerba, 2009). Giardia is an anaerobic flagellated protozoa capable of encystation , and known pathogenic hazard in warm blooded animals, including man (Erlandsen and Meyer, 1984) Clinical features could be from asymptomatic carriage to diarrhea, abdominal pain and rapid weight loss (Thompson, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Argentina is a developing Latin American nation that has an aim of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for potable water supplies. Their current regulations however, limit the continued development of improved potable water quality and infrastructure from a microbiological viewpoint. This is since the current regulations are focused solely to pathogenic Eschericia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and fecal indicators. Regions of lower socioeconomic status such as peri-urban areas are particularly at risk due to lessened financial and political ability to influence their environmental quality and infrastructure needs. Therefore, a combined microbiological sampling, analysis and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modeling effort were engaged for a peri-urban area of Salta Argentina. Drinking water samples from home taps were analyzed and a QMRA model was developed, results of which were compared against a general 1:10,000 risk level for lack of a current Argentinian standard. This QMRA model was able to demonstrate that the current regulations were being achieved for E. coli but were less than acceptable for P. aeruginosa in some instances. Appropriate health protections are far from acceptable for Giardia for almost all water sources. Untreated water sources were sampled and analyzed then QMRA modeled as well, since a significant number of the community (∼9%) still use them for potable water supplies. For untreated water E. coli risks were near 1:10,000, however, P. aeruginosa and Giardia risks failed to be acceptable in almost all instances. The QMRA model and microbiological analyses demonstrate the need for improved regulatory efforts for the peri-urban area along with improved investment in their water infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    International journal of hygiene and environmental health 06/2015; 218(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.06.007 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    • "The major source for contamination by Ps. aeruginosa in the dairy is the purified water systems (Mena and Gerba 2009) used for udder washing (Malmo et al. 1972) or wash hoses and spray nozzles in the parlour (Kirk and Bartlett 1984). Although Ps. aeruginosa has a reputation for being resistant to disinfection and can survive in deionized or distilled water, studies show that it can be treated in drinking water with chlorine , chloramines, ozone or iodine (Mena and Gerba 2009; Staradumskyte and Paulauskas 2014). Pseudomonas aeruginosa also may be selected for by chemical disinfection solutions used by hydrogel contact lens wearers (Lakkis and Fleiszig 2001; Stapleton and Carnt 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Evaluate susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates to antibiotics and disinfectants. Methods and Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from dogs (n=155) and other animals (n=20) from sixteen states during 1994–2003 were tested for susceptibility. Most isolates were resistant to twenty-one antimicrobials tested, and the highest prevalence of resistance was to β-lactams (93.8%) and sulfonamides (93.5%). Fluoroquinolone resistance did not increase from 1994–2003. Ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin had a 5% and 16% prevalence of resistance, respectively, while sarafloxacin and nalidixic acid had a prevalence of resistance of 97% and 98%, respectively. Strains were pan-resistant to triclosan, chlorhexidine, highly resistant to benzalkonium chloride, and demonstrated high susceptibility to other disinfectants. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride was the most active ammonium chloride. Inducible resistance was observed to cetyl ammonium halides, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chlorides, which formulate disinfectants used in veterinary clinics and dairies. Organic acid inhibition was associated with the dissociated acid species. Conclusions: Dissociated organic acids appear able to inhibit P. aeruginosa, and rates of fluoroquinolone resistance merit sustained companion animal isolate surveillance. Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first report of P. aeruginosa susceptibility to 24 disinfectants and illustrates the high resistance of P. aeruginosa to both antibiotics and disinfectants.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 12/2014; 118(2):326-342. DOI:10.1111/jam.12707 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    • "P.aeruginosa pulmonary disease can occur if after exposure via wound contact, aerosols, or aspiration. (Ferroni et al., 1998; Aumeran et al., 2007; Cholley et al., 2008; Mena & Gerba, 2009; USCDC, 2000, 2011b, 2012a, 2013)  "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2013, hospital-acquired Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) led to illness and death in Queensland, Australia, prompting unprecedented State-wide healthcare potable water microbial sampling. Results revealed pockets of high HPC bacteria and L. pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 counts state-wide, shedding new light on a previously unrecognized risk. These bacteriological results were part of a program which identified gaps in Queensland healthcare infrastructure water quality management which required attention in order to properly protect public health. These gaps furthermore included potential for the implementation of change in Australian municipal water management as Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) do not require, but only recommend quality practices (such as for disinfection effectiveness, turbidity, and secondary disinfectant residual). Key challenges in Queensland water quality which were seen to feed into the problems identified in healthcare infrastructure potable water quality include dissolved organic carbon which can exceed 5 mg/L; yearly average water temperatures which exceed 20 o C (exceeding 30 o C in most locations during the summer; 45 o C in some locations); no requirement to maintain secondary disinfectant residual; and, a lack of required water quality monitoring and reporting. As a result of the above, a technical advisory panel was commissioned by Queensland Health which developed Guidelines for Managing Microbial Water Quality in Healthcare Facilities. These Guidelines encourage healthcare facilities to develop Water Quality Risk Management Plans for their potable water infrastructure in order to prevent microbial regrowth which can lead to illness.
    American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana USA; 11/2014
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