Sleep apnea in adult myotonic dystrophy patients who have no excessive daytime sleepiness.
ABSTRACT Sleep apnea is common in myotonic dystrophy (MD) and may cause respiratory failure. Most of the sleep studies have been performed in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which is a characteristic and strong predictor of sleep apnea. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of sleep apnea in adult MD patients who have no EDS.
Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to exclude EDS and a score over 10 was accepted as an indicator of EDS. Sleep studies of 17 adult MD patients with the Epworth sleepiness scale score < or =10 were retrospectively reviewed. Spirometry (n = 16) and daytime arterial blood gasses were used to evaluate the relationship with nocturnal parameters.
On admission to the outpatient chest clinic, seven patients had normal spirometry, and ten had daytime hypercapnia and/or hypoxemia. All but one had sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index > or =5 events/h of sleep; mild in five, moderate in seven, and severe in four). Hypopneas were more common than apneas (16.9 +/- 13.2 events/h vs. 4.6 +/- 4.1 events/h). Nocturnal desaturation episodes were very frequent (oxygen desaturation index, 19.7 +/- 20.3/h of sleep). Three patients had central sleep apnea and 13 had obstructive sleep apnea. Body mass index, spirometry parameters (FVC and FEV1) and arterial oxygen tension were moderately correlated with nocturnal oxygenation parameters. Apnea-hypopnea index showed moderate correlation with spirometry parameters (FVC and FEV1).
Sleep apnea and oxygen desaturations are very common in MD patients who report no excessive daytime sleepiness. Daytime lung function parameters are not sufficiently reliable for screening sleep apnea. Therefore, we recommend routine polysomnography in MD patients.
- SourceAvailable from: Sairam Parthasarathy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Positive airway pressure therapy for hypoventilation syndromes can significantly improve health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), healthcare costs, and even mortality. The sleep-disordered breathing in such individuals are quite complex and require sophisticated devices with algorithms that are designed to accurately detect and effectively treat respiratory events that includes hypoventilation, upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction, central apneas and central hypopneas and reduce the work of breathing while maintaining breathing comfort.Sleep Medicine Clinics 09/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS-disorders are epilepsy, stroke, subarachanoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis, and head injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest as arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, or autonomic dysfunction. Rarer cardiac complications of CNS disorders include heart failure, systolic or diastolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension. Cardiomyopathy induced by hereditary CNS disease mainly include stress-induced myocardial dysfunction, known as Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes epilepsy, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid bleeding, or PRES syndrome. Arrhythmias induced by hereditary CNS disease include supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias leading to palpitations, dizziness, vertigo, fainting, syncope, (near) sudden cardiac death, or sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Appropriate management of cardiac involvement in CNS-disorders is essential to improve outcome of affected patients.Journal of the neurological sciences. 07/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Restrictive lung disease leads to ventilatory defects and diffusion impairments. These changes may contribute to abnormal nocturnal pathophysiology, including sleep architecture disruption and impaired ventilation and oxygenation. Patients with restrictive lung disease may suffer significant daytime fatigue and dysfunction. Hypercarbia and hypoxemia during sleep may impact progression of lung disease and related symptoms. Little is known about the impact of treatment of sleep disruption on sleep quality and overall prognosis in restrictive lung disease. This review discusses the pathophysiology of sleep and comorbid sleep disorders in restrictive lung diseases including interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome.Clinics in Chest Medicine 09/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor