Health and Economic Benefits of Early Vaccination and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for a Human Influenza A (H7N9) Pandemic: A Modeling Study.

Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.81). 05/2014; 160(10):684-94. DOI: 10.7326/M13-2071
Source: PubMed


Vaccination for the 2009 pandemic did not occur until late in the outbreak, which limited its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing increasing morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified the A (H5N1) virus to transmit via aerosol, which again heightens concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness.

31 Reads

  • BMJ (online) 05/2014; 348:g3423. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g3423 · 17.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Entry inhibitors are of particular importance in current efforts to develop a new generation of anti-influenza virus drugs. Here we report certain pentacyclic triterpenes exhibiting conserved structure features and with in vitro anti-influenza virus activity comparable to and even higher than that of oseltamivir. Mechanistic studies indicated that these lead triterpenoids bind tightly to the viral envelope hemagglutinin (HA), disrupting the interaction of HA with the sialic acid receptor and thus the attachment of viruses to host cells. Docking studies suggest that the binding pocket within HA for sialic acid receptor potentially acts as a targeting domain, and this is supported by structure-activity data, sialic acid competition studies and broad anti-influenza spectrum as well as less induction of drug resistance. Our study might establish the importance of triterpenoids for development of entry inhibitors of influenza viruses.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2014; 57(23). DOI:10.1021/jm5014067 · 5.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT–PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks.
    Epidemiology and Infection 12/2014; 143(10):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S0950268814003586 · 2.54 Impact Factor