Laparoscopic treatment of colovesical fistulas due to complicated colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review

Techniques in Coloproctology (Impact Factor: 2.04). 05/2014; 18(10). DOI: 10.1007/s10151-014-1157-5
Source: PubMed


Colovesical fistulas originating from complicated sigmoid diverticular disease are rare. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of this complication. The secondary aim was to determine the best surgical treatment for this disease. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between 1992 and 2012 in PubMed, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, Scopus, and Publish or Perish. Studies enrolling adults undergoing fully laparoscopic, laparoscopic-assisted, or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colovesical fistula secondary to complicated sigmoid diverticular disease were considered. Data extracted concerned the surgical technique, intraoperative outcomes, and postoperative outcomes based on the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group's template. Descriptive statistics were reported according to the PRISMA statement. In all, 202 patients from 25 studies were included in this review. The standard treatment was laparoscopic colonic resection and primary anastomosis or temporary colostomy with or without resection of the bladder wall. Operative time ranged from 150 to 321 min. It was not possible to evaluate the conversion rate to open surgery because colovesical fistulas were not distinguished from other types of enteric fistulas in most of the studies. One anastomotic leak after bowel anastomosis was reported. There was zero mortality. Few studies conducted follow-up longer than 12 months. One patient required two reoperations. Laparoscopic treatment of colovesical fistulas secondary to sigmoid diverticular disease appears to be a feasible and safe approach. However, further studies are needed to establish whether laparoscopy is preferable to other surgical approaches.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Entero-vesical or entero-vaginal fistulae (EVF) are an uncommon septic complication mainly of diverticular disease. The fistulae are usually situated within extensive and dense inflammatory masses occluding the entrance of the pelvis. There are still some controversies regarding laparoscopic feasibility and treatment modalities of this disorder. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients with EVF operated at our department since 2008. Patients were identified by use of the computerized hospital information system. Results: In nineteen patients (ten males), median age 68 years, 13 patients had entero-vesical fistulae, and 6 patients had entero-vaginal fistulae. The fistulae were caused by complicated diverticular disease in 16 patients (84 %), Crohn's disease (two patients), and ulcerative colitis (one patient). All cases were attempted laparoscopically. Operative treatment involved separation of the inflammatory mass and resection of the affected colorectal segment. There were three conversions (16 %), all three requiring bladder repair considered too extensive for laparoscopic means. In two further patients small bladder defects were sutured laparoscopically, the remaining patients required no bladder repair. The inferior mesentric artery (IMA) was preserved in all cases. Median operative time was 180 min. Two patients received a protective ileostomy: one converted patient and one cachectic patient with Crohn's disease under immune-modulating therapy. Both ileostomies were closed. Altogether, there were five complications in five patients (26 %), four of them were minor (Clavien grade I and II). The cachectic patient with Crohn's disease suffered a major (grade IIIb) complication (stoma prolapse, treated by early closure of the ileostomy). There was no anastomotic leakage and no mortality. Median hospital stay was 12 days. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach is a safe option for the treatment of EVF of benign inflammatory origin. In most cases it offers all the advantages pertaining to minimally invasive surgery. For a definite and causal approach, the disorder belongs primarily within the therapeutic domain of the visceral surgeon. Following the separation of the inflammatory colon, most of the bladder lesions caused by EVF will heal without further surgical measures.
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