The checkpoint response to replication stress.
ABSTRACT Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and defective DNA replication, repair and recombination have been linked to its etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that proteins influencing S-phase processes such as replication fork movement and stability, repair events and replication completion, have significant roles in maintaining genome stability. DNA damage and replication stress activate a signal transduction cascade, often referred to as the checkpoint response. A central goal of the replication checkpoint is to maintain the integrity of the replication forks while facilitating replication completion and DNA repair and coordinating these events with cell cycle transitions. Progression through the cell cycle in spite of defective or incomplete DNA synthesis or unrepaired DNA lesions may result in broken chromosomes, genome aberrations, and an accumulation of mutations. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of the replication checkpoint during replication and in response to replication stress, as well as the enzymatic activities that cooperate with the checkpoint pathway to promote fork resumption and repair of DNA lesions thereby contributing to genome integrity.
SourceAvailable from: Marina Nedelcheva-Veleva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Keeping the replication machinery intact allows restart of the replication fork when the block is relieved. Although the subunits of the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 complex are well studied, the impact of every single subunit on the triple complex formation and function needs to be established.Cell Division 01/2014; 9:4. DOI:10.1186/1747-1028-9-4 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), which is established during DNA replication, ensures genome stability. Establishment of SCC is inhibited in G2. However, this inhibition is relived and SCC is established as a response to DNA damage, a process known as Damage Induced Cohesion (DIC). In yeast, Chk1, which is a kinase that functions in DNA damage signal transduction, is considered an activator of SCC through DIC. Nonetheless, here we show that, unlike SCC mutations, loss of CHK1 did not increase spontaneous or damage-induced allelic recombination or aneuploidy. We suggest that Chk1 has a redundant role in the control of DIC or that DIC is redundant for maintaining genome stability.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113435. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113435 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored.