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ABSTRACT The diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by aggressive (e.g., physical aggression) as well as nonaggressive symptoms (e.g., violation of rules, truancy). Conclusions regarding the course and prognosis, or recommendations for effective interventions, seem not to be equally valid for the whole patient group. DSM-IV-TR included subtyping age-of-onset as a prognostic criterion, even though the evidence base for subtyping from age of onset was rather sparse. The relevant literature on CD has grown substantially since the publication of DSM-IV-TR in 1994. For the new DSM-5 edition, some important issues were discussed, for example, consideration of personality traits, female-specific or dimensional criteria, and adding a childhood-limited subtype ( Moffitt et al., 2008 ). Nevertheless, the diagnostic protocol for CD was not changed in the most parts in the new edition of the DSM-5; the addition of a CD specifier with limited emotions is the most relevant change. On the basis of the existing evidence base, this review discusses whether the modifications in DSM-5 are helpful for fulfilling the requirements of a reliable and valid psychiatric classification.
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ABSTRACT: One method for defining pathways through which children develop severe conduct problems is based on the presence or absence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. This study investigated potential differences between nonreferred children (mean age = 12.36 years; SD = 1.73) with and without CU traits (n = 98). Children with conduct problems, irrespective of the presence of CU traits, tended to have significant problems in emotional and behavioral regulation. In contrast, CU traits, irespective of the presence of conduct problems, were associated with a lack of behavioral inhibition. Hostile attributional biases were associated with conduct problems but only in boys and in the absence of CU traits. These findings suggest that the processes underlying deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation in children with conduct problems may be different for children with CU traits.Developmental Psychology 04/2003; 39(2):246-60. DOI:10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.124 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychopathy is a condition with important consequences both for individuals who experience it and for the communities in which they live. Although the assessment of psychopathy among adolescents remains controversial, some evidence suggests that the affective and behavioral traits of adult psychopathy begin to emerge in childhood (B. B. Lahey & A. Kazdin, 1990) and continue across the lifespan (A. E. Forth, S. D. Hart, & R. D. Hare, 1990). The present study used the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, S. D. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, in press) to retrospectively assess psychopathic characteristics, treatment process, and outcomes of 64 individuals referred for treatment to a substance abuse program for adjudicated adolescents. This study focused on the relationship between psychopathic characteristics and treatment process and outcome variables, including attrition rates, quality of participation, substance use throughout treatment, clinical improvement, and 12-month recidivism rates. Psychopathic characteristics were negatively related to treatment process and outcome variables, including attrition, participation, substance use, and clinical improvement. Psychopathic characteristics were positively related to the number of arrests in the 12 months following treatment completion. Implications for treatment and future research with adolescents displaying psychopathic characteristics are discussed.Law and Human Behavior 06/2003; 27(3):299-313. DOI:10.1023/A:1023435924569 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with early-emerging conduct problems are likely to become parents who expose their children to considerable adversity. The current study tested the specificity of and alternative explanations for this trajectory. The sample included 246 members of a prospective, 30-year cohort study and their 3-year-old children. Parents who had a history of conduct disorder were specifically at elevated risk for socioeconomic disadvantage and relationship violence, but suboptimal parenting and offspring temperament problems were common to parents with any history of disorder. Recurrent disorder, comorbidity, and adversity in the family of origin did not fully account for these findings. The cumulative consequences of early-onset conduct disorder and assortative mating for antisocial behavior may explain the long-term effects of conduct disorder on young adult functioning.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 06/2006; 115(2):309-19. DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.309 · 4.86 Impact Factor