Enzymatic synthesis of salicin glycosides through transglycosylation catalyzed by amylosucrases from Deinococcus geothermalis and Neisseria polysaccharea
ABSTRACT Amylosucrase (ASase, EC 188.8.131.52) is a member of family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the synthesis of an alpha-(1-->4)-linked glucan polymer from sucrose instead of an expensive activated sugar, such as ADP- or UDP-glucose. Transglycosylation reactions mediated by the ASases of Deinococcus geothermalis (DGAS) and Neisseria polysaccharea (NPAS) were applied to the synthesis of salicin glycosides with sucrose serving as the glucopyranosyl donor and salicin as the acceptor molecule. Two salicin glycoside transfer products were detected by TLC and HPLC analyses. The synthesis of salicin glycosides was very efficient with NPAS with a yield of over 90%. In contrast, DGAS specifically synthesized only one salicin transglycosylation product. The transglycosylation products were identified as alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-salicin (glucosyl salicin) and alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-salicin (maltosyl salicin) by NMR analysis. The ratio between donor and acceptor had a significant effect on the type of product that resulted from the transglycosylation reaction. With more acceptors present in the reaction, more glucosyl salicin and less maltosyl salicin were synthesized.
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ABSTRACT: The amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (NpAS) naturally catalyzes the synthesis of a variety of products from sucrose and shows signs of plasticity of its active site. To explore further this promiscuity, the tolerance of amylosucrase towards different donor and acceptor substrates was investigated. The selection of alternate donor substrates was first made on the basis of preliminary molecular modeling studies. From 11 potential donors harboring selective derivatizations that were experimentally evaluated, only p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside was used by the wild-type enzyme, and this underlines the high specificity of the −1 subsite of NpAS for glucosyl donor substrates. The acceptor substrate promiscuity was further explored by screening 20 hydroxylated molecules, including D- and L-monosaccharides as well as polyols. With the exception of one compound, all were successfully glucosylated, and this showcases the tremendous plasticity of the +1 subsite of NpAS, which is responsible for acceptor recognition. The products obtained from the transglucosylation reactions of three selected acceptors were characterized, and they revealed original structures and enzyme enantiopreference, which were more particularly analyzed by in silico docking analyses.ChemCatChem 08/2013; 5(8). DOI:10.1002/cctc.201300012 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sucrose accumulation has been observed in some methylotrophic bacteria utilizing methane, methanol, or methylated amines as a carbon and energy source. In this work, we have investigated the biochemical pathways for sucrose metabolism in the model halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The genes encoding sucrose-phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (Spp), fructokinase (FruK), and amylosucrase (Ams) were co-transcribed and displayed similar expression levels. Functional Spp and Ams were purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Spp exhibited high affinity for sucrose-6-phosphate and stayed active at very high levels of sucrose (K i = 1.0 ± 0.6 M). The recombinant amylosucrase obeyed the classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the reactions of sucrose hydrolysis and transglycosylation. As a result, the complete metabolic network for sucrose biosynthesis and re-utilization in the non-phototrophic organism was reconstructed for the first time. Comparative genomic studies revealed analogous gene clusters in various Proteobacteria, thus indicating that the ability to produce and metabolize sucrose is widespread among prokaryotes.Archives of Microbiology 01/2015; 197(3). DOI:10.1007/s00203-015-1080-9 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Baicalein-6-α-glucoside (BG), a glycosylated derivative of baicalein, was synthesized by using sucrose and the amylosucrase of Deinococcus geothermalis and tested for its solubility, chemical stability, and anti-inflammatory activity. BG was 26.3 times more soluble than baicalein and highly stable in buffered solutions and Dulbecco׳s modified Eagle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. BG treatment decreased the production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Luciferase reporter assays, western blots, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometric analyses indicated that BG activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an antioxidant transcription factor that confers protection from various inflammatory diseases, induced Nrf2-dependent gene expression, and suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species elicited by LPS more effectively than baicalein. Cellular uptake of BG assessed by confocal microscopy and HPLC analysis of the cell-free extracts of RAW 264.7 cells demonstrated that BG was gradually converted to baicalein inside the cells. These results explain that glycosylation increased the bioavailability of baicalein by helping to protect this vital molecule from chemical or enzymatic oxidation. Therefore, BG, a glycosylated derivative of baicalein, can be an alternative to baicalein as a therapeutic drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2014; 744C:147-156. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.10.013 · 2.68 Impact Factor