Determination of aflatoxins in imported rice to Iran

Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), P.O. Box 31585-163, Karaj, Iran.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Impact Factor: 2.61). 06/2009; 47(8):2064-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities including cereals. Rice were imported to Iran during March 2006-March 2007 analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) using immunoaffinity column and quantitated by HPLC. In this regard, 71 rice samples were collected. After dividing samples to sub-samples, AF analyses were done. Among 71 samples analyzed, AFB1 was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFB1 was 1.89 ng/g for all samples (with the not detected samples taken as zero). Total AF (AFT) was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFT was 2.09 ng/g for all samples. AFB1 level in two samples (2.8%) was above the maximum tolerated level (MTL) of AFB1 in Iran (5 ng/g). Regarding AFT, the mean contamination level (2.09 ng/g) was lower than MTL of AFT in rice in Iran as well as lower than maximum level of EU for AFT (4 ng/g), and only nine samples had levels above the MTL of EU in AFT.

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    • "American continent Argentina M Broggi et al., 2007; Garrido et al., 2012 Brazil M, R Almeida et al., 2012; Carvalho et al., 2010; Dors et al., 2011, 2013; Moreno et al., 2009; Nunes et al., 2003; Oliveira et al., 2010; Rocha et al., 2009 Canada M, R, W Bansal et al., 2011; Martos et al., 2010 United States of America M, R, W Abbas et al., 2006; Bruns et al., 2007; Liao et al., 2013 Asian continent China M, R Fu et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2011; Lai et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2013 India R, S, W Ratnavathi et al., 2012; Reddy et al., 2009; Toteja et al., 2006 Iran M, R Ghiasian et al., 2011; Karami-Osboo et al., 2012; Mazaheri, 2009; Mohammadi et al., 2012; Sani et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2013 Japan M, R Sugita-Konishi et al., 2006 Korea M, R Kim et al., 2013; Park et al., 2004 Malaysia R, W Khayoon et al., 2012; Rahman and Jinap, 2010; Reddy and Baharuddin, 2010; Soleimany et al., 2011; Soleimany et al., 2012 Pakistan M, R, S, W Ahsan et al., 2010; Asghar et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2011; Iqbal et al., 2012; Khatoon et al., 2012; Lutfullah and Hussain, 2012; Shah et al., 2010 Qatar R, W Abdulkadar et al., 2004 South Korea R Ok et al., 2014 Taiwan R Yu et al., 2013 Vietnam R Nguyen et al., 2007 European continent Austria R Reiter et al., 2010 Germany M, R EFSA, 2007; Reinhold and Reinhardt, 2011 Italy M, W Covarelli et al., 2011; EFSA, 2007; Pace et al., 2012 Serbia M, W Jakic-Dimic et al., 2009; Kos et al., 2013 Turkey M, R, W Alptekin et al., 2009; Aydin et al., 2011; Giray et al., 2007; Oruc et al., 2006 Belgium, "
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide occurrence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), genotoxic mycotoxins, in raw maize, rice, sorghum and wheat samples collected since the year 2000 was evaluated using published data and occurrence data from the GEMS/Food database ( Dietary risk assessments were conducted using GEMS/Food total aflatoxin occurrence and food consumption data obtained from the 17 Cluster Diets. Risk characterisation arising from aflatoxin exposure was conducted using both cancer risk and margin of exposure (MOE) approaches. A total of 89 publications were retrieved from the literature, reporting data related to 18,097 samples, of which 37.6% were positive for at least one aflatoxin. The total upper bound (UB) mean for all samples analysed was 13.6 μg/kg, and was higher for rice (24.6 μg/kg) and sorghum (25.9 μg/kg). Of data related to the analysis of 4,536 samples reported to GEMS/Food database, 12.7% were positive for at least one aflatoxin. The total UB mean was 1.9 μg/kg, and was higher for rice (2.4 μg/kg) and maize (1.6 μg/kg). Total intakes ranged from 3.0 ng/kg bw/ day (Cluster C11) to 17.1 ng/kg bw/day (Cluster C09). On average, the consumption of rice contributed to 41.6% of the total aflatoxin intake in all clusters, followed by wheat (35.4%), maize (21.2%) and sorghum (1.8%). The lowest cancer risk was found in cluster C11 (0.057 cancers/year/105 individuals), and the highest in cluster C09 (0.467 cancers/year/105 individuals). MOE ranged from 56 (C11) to 10 (C09), indicating a potential risk to consumers. These results highlight the need for continuous action by health authorities to decrease aflatoxin contamination in cereals, as they are staple foods in diets worldwide. These actions include the enforcement of code of practices at the national level and the establishment of maximum contamination levels by the Codex System.
    World Mycotoxin Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.3920/WMJ2014.1847 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "In most studies , the incidence of positive samples is high ( 49 . 7 – 100% ) , although the mean levels found in positive sample were lower than 5 mg kg À1 ( Mazaheri 2009 ; Bansal et al . 2011 ; Reddy et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: A preliminary dietary exposure assessment for aflatoxins (AFs; AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) was conducted to evaluate the potential carcinogenic risks for the Brazilian population. AF concentration data in food were obtained from analysis reports issued by the Central Public Health Laboratory of the Federal District (LACEN-DF) and from published work. Food consumption and body weight (bw) data were obtained from a national survey conducted in 2008/2009. Cancer risks arising from exposure to aflatoxins were assessed using the carcinogenic potency of AFs estimated by the JECFA, and hepatitis B virus prevalence in the Brazilian population. Additionally, margins of exposure (MOE) were also calculated for the various scenarios investigated. A total of 942 food samples were analysed for AFs in the Federal District between 2002 and 2011 with 4.5% of them being positive for at least one aflatoxin (LOQ = 2 µg kg(-1)). The highest percentage of contamination was found in peanuts (8.1%) and Brazil nuts (6.0%), with mean levels ranging from 6.7 µg kg(-1) in peanut products to 36.9 µg kg(-1) in Brazil nuts. Most of the studies conducted elsewhere in Brazil found similar results. Total AF intake for the total Brazilian population and high consumers of food relevant for AF contamination in Brazil (upper bound; samples < LOQ = 0.5 LOQ) were 6.8 and 27.6 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. Cancer risk reached 0.0753 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for the total population and 0.3056 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for high consumers. MOE reached 25 and 6 for the total population and high consumers, respectively, indicating a potential risk for consumers. Aflatoxins are genotoxic carcinogens, and government action should be maintained and continuously improved in order to guarantee that human exposure levels are kept as low as possible.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 09/2012; 30(1):127-36. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2012.720037 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Aflatoxins in rice have been the subject of several studies worldwide (Liu et al. 2006; Tanaka et al. 2007; Mazaheri 2009), but the natural contamination of rice in different processing stages in less well documented. Also, as rice is the main staple food in Pakistan, the contamination by aflatoxins could have a high impact in human health, so an estimation of current dietary intake is needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of aflatoxins in rice milling fractions and to estimate dietary intakes. A total of 413 rice samples (paddy 58, parboiled 69, brown 84, white 93, and broken 109) were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that 64 % paddy (16.35 ± 1.67 μg/kg), 38 % parboiled (14.20 ± 2.04 μg/kg), 33 % brown (9.85 ± 1.25 μg/kg), 42 % white (7.10 ± 1.39 μg/kg), and 50 % broken (8.5 ± 1.71 μg/kg) rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. It was found that paddy rice was most contaminated with aflatoxins while white rice was least contaminated. The percentage of samples exceeding EU maximum contents for total aflatoxins in rice (4 μg/kg) varied from 14 to 36 % when compared to the analyzed rice fractions. The total estimated amount of aflatoxin intake for average rice consumers ranged from 19.1 to 26.6 ng/kg body weight/day, much higher than the reference value of 1 ng/kg body weight/day. This is the first report discovering that rice is a major contributor to the dietary intake of aflatoxins in Pakistan.
    Mycotoxin Research 08/2012; 28(3):175-80. DOI:10.1007/s12550-012-0131-1
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