Article

Determination of aflatoxins in imported rice to Iran

Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), P.O. Box 31585-163, Karaj, Iran.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Impact Factor: 2.61). 06/2009; 47(8):2064-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities including cereals. Rice were imported to Iran during March 2006-March 2007 analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) using immunoaffinity column and quantitated by HPLC. In this regard, 71 rice samples were collected. After dividing samples to sub-samples, AF analyses were done. Among 71 samples analyzed, AFB1 was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFB1 was 1.89 ng/g for all samples (with the not detected samples taken as zero). Total AF (AFT) was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFT was 2.09 ng/g for all samples. AFB1 level in two samples (2.8%) was above the maximum tolerated level (MTL) of AFB1 in Iran (5 ng/g). Regarding AFT, the mean contamination level (2.09 ng/g) was lower than MTL of AFT in rice in Iran as well as lower than maximum level of EU for AFT (4 ng/g), and only nine samples had levels above the MTL of EU in AFT.

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    • "American continent Argentina M Broggi et al., 2007; Garrido et al., 2012 Brazil M, R Almeida et al., 2012; Carvalho et al., 2010; Dors et al., 2011, 2013; Moreno et al., 2009; Nunes et al., 2003; Oliveira et al., 2010; Rocha et al., 2009 Canada M, R, W Bansal et al., 2011; Martos et al., 2010 United States of America M, R, W Abbas et al., 2006; Bruns et al., 2007; Liao et al., 2013 Asian continent China M, R Fu et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2011; Lai et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2013 India R, S, W Ratnavathi et al., 2012; Reddy et al., 2009; Toteja et al., 2006 Iran M, R Ghiasian et al., 2011; Karami-Osboo et al., 2012; Mazaheri, 2009; Mohammadi et al., 2012; Sani et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2013 Japan M, R Sugita-Konishi et al., 2006 Korea M, R Kim et al., 2013; Park et al., 2004 Malaysia R, W Khayoon et al., 2012; Rahman and Jinap, 2010; Reddy and Baharuddin, 2010; Soleimany et al., 2011; Soleimany et al., 2012 Pakistan M, R, S, W Ahsan et al., 2010; Asghar et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2011; Iqbal et al., 2012; Khatoon et al., 2012; Lutfullah and Hussain, 2012; Shah et al., 2010 Qatar R, W Abdulkadar et al., 2004 South Korea R Ok et al., 2014 Taiwan R Yu et al., 2013 Vietnam R Nguyen et al., 2007 European continent Austria R Reiter et al., 2010 Germany M, R EFSA, 2007; Reinhold and Reinhardt, 2011 Italy M, W Covarelli et al., 2011; EFSA, 2007; Pace et al., 2012 Serbia M, W Jakic-Dimic et al., 2009; Kos et al., 2013 Turkey M, R, W Alptekin et al., 2009; Aydin et al., 2011; Giray et al., 2007; Oruc et al., 2006 Belgium, "
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    World Mycotoxin Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.3920/WMJ2014.1847 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "In most studies , the incidence of positive samples is high ( 49 . 7 – 100% ) , although the mean levels found in positive sample were lower than 5 mg kg À1 ( Mazaheri 2009 ; Bansal et al . 2011 ; Reddy et al . "
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    • "Aflatoxins in rice have been the subject of several studies worldwide (Liu et al. 2006; Tanaka et al. 2007; Mazaheri 2009), but the natural contamination of rice in different processing stages in less well documented. Also, as rice is the main staple food in Pakistan, the contamination by aflatoxins could have a high impact in human health, so an estimation of current dietary intake is needed. "
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