Determination of aflatoxins in imported rice to Iran

Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), P.O. Box 31585-163, Karaj, Iran.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Impact Factor: 2.9). 06/2009; 47(8):2064-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.027
Source: PubMed


Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities including cereals. Rice were imported to Iran during March 2006-March 2007 analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) using immunoaffinity column and quantitated by HPLC. In this regard, 71 rice samples were collected. After dividing samples to sub-samples, AF analyses were done. Among 71 samples analyzed, AFB1 was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFB1 was 1.89 ng/g for all samples (with the not detected samples taken as zero). Total AF (AFT) was detected in 59 samples (83% of the total). The mean of AFT was 2.09 ng/g for all samples. AFB1 level in two samples (2.8%) was above the maximum tolerated level (MTL) of AFB1 in Iran (5 ng/g). Regarding AFT, the mean contamination level (2.09 ng/g) was lower than MTL of AFT in rice in Iran as well as lower than maximum level of EU for AFT (4 ng/g), and only nine samples had levels above the MTL of EU in AFT.

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    • "American continent Argentina M Broggi et al., 2007; Garrido et al., 2012 Brazil M, R Almeida et al., 2012; Carvalho et al., 2010; Dors et al., 2011, 2013; Moreno et al., 2009; Nunes et al., 2003; Oliveira et al., 2010; Rocha et al., 2009 Canada M, R, W Bansal et al., 2011; Martos et al., 2010 United States of America M, R, W Abbas et al., 2006; Bruns et al., 2007; Liao et al., 2013 Asian continent China M, R Fu et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2011; Lai et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2013 India R, S, W Ratnavathi et al., 2012; Reddy et al., 2009; Toteja et al., 2006 Iran M, R Ghiasian et al., 2011; Karami-Osboo et al., 2012; Mazaheri, 2009; Mohammadi et al., 2012; Sani et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2013 Japan M, R Sugita-Konishi et al., 2006 Korea M, R Kim et al., 2013; Park et al., 2004 Malaysia R, W Khayoon et al., 2012; Rahman and Jinap, 2010; Reddy and Baharuddin, 2010; Soleimany et al., 2011; Soleimany et al., 2012 Pakistan M, R, S, W Ahsan et al., 2010; Asghar et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2011; Iqbal et al., 2012; Khatoon et al., 2012; Lutfullah and Hussain, 2012; Shah et al., 2010 Qatar R, W Abdulkadar et al., 2004 South Korea R Ok et al., 2014 Taiwan R Yu et al., 2013 Vietnam R Nguyen et al., 2007 European continent Austria R Reiter et al., 2010 Germany M, R EFSA, 2007; Reinhold and Reinhardt, 2011 Italy M, W Covarelli et al., 2011; EFSA, 2007; Pace et al., 2012 Serbia M, W Jakic-Dimic et al., 2009; Kos et al., 2013 Turkey M, R, W Alptekin et al., 2009; Aydin et al., 2011; Giray et al., 2007; Oruc et al., 2006 Belgium, "
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide occurrence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), genotoxic mycotoxins, in raw maize, rice, sorghum and wheat samples collected since the year 2000 was evaluated using published data and occurrence data from the GEMS/Food database ( Dietary risk assessments were conducted using GEMS/Food total aflatoxin occurrence and food consumption data obtained from the 17 Cluster Diets. Risk characterisation arising from aflatoxin exposure was conducted using both cancer risk and margin of exposure (MOE) approaches. A total of 89 publications were retrieved from the literature, reporting data related to 18,097 samples, of which 37.6% were positive for at least one aflatoxin. The total upper bound (UB) mean for all samples analysed was 13.6 μg/kg, and was higher for rice (24.6 μg/kg) and sorghum (25.9 μg/kg). Of data related to the analysis of 4,536 samples reported to GEMS/Food database, 12.7% were positive for at least one aflatoxin. The total UB mean was 1.9 μg/kg, and was higher for rice (2.4 μg/kg) and maize (1.6 μg/kg). Total intakes ranged from 3.0 ng/kg bw/ day (Cluster C11) to 17.1 ng/kg bw/day (Cluster C09). On average, the consumption of rice contributed to 41.6% of the total aflatoxin intake in all clusters, followed by wheat (35.4%), maize (21.2%) and sorghum (1.8%). The lowest cancer risk was found in cluster C11 (0.057 cancers/year/105 individuals), and the highest in cluster C09 (0.467 cancers/year/105 individuals). MOE ranged from 56 (C11) to 10 (C09), indicating a potential risk to consumers. These results highlight the need for continuous action by health authorities to decrease aflatoxin contamination in cereals, as they are staple foods in diets worldwide. These actions include the enforcement of code of practices at the national level and the establishment of maximum contamination levels by the Codex System.
    World Mycotoxin Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.3920/WMJ2014.1847 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites of fungal origin. They are produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and, in rare cases, A. nominus and A. pseudotamari (Mazaheri, 2009). Among the 18 different types of aflatoxins identified the four naturally occurring ones are Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), "
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    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by some species of fungi. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes and ochratoxins are the common mycotoxins in Nigeria. Aflatoxin is the most frequently reported in literatures, with trichothecenes being the least, they cause yield loss to farmers as well as constituting major health risk to humans. The occurrence of mycotoxins in food is a serious problem that Nigeria is facing presently, as it continues to pose threat to feed and food safety of animals and humans. There is the need to seek for approaches that would lead to reduction in their toxicity. The practice of good sanitary measures right from the farm to storage, creation of awareness campaign to indicate the toxic effects associated with mycotoxin poisonings in humans and livestock, and proper evaluation of food crops for its presence can go a long way in achieving the target reduction in incidence of mycotoxins in Nigeria.
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    • "There is only one report on AFB1 contamination in rice in Iran (12). Mazaheri reported that AFB1 and AFT were detected in 59 of 71 rice samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 was performed on 90 samples collected from Tehran retail market in June 2005. The results showed that none of the bread and wheat flour samples were contaminated with AFB1. The mean AFB1 levels in rice, puffed corn snack and peanut samples were 4.17, 0.11, and 1.97 ng/g, respectively. The level of contamination of 3 samples (one rice sample and two peanuts samples) to AFB1 was found to be higher than 5 ng/g. Although all food samples had mean concentration of AFB1 below the maximum tolerated level in Iran, the mean intake of AFB1 from rice was estimated 3.49 times higher than the guidance value of 1 ng AFB1/Kg body weight/day. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to monitor AFB1 in foods, especially in rice, in Iran. This is the first study on exposure assessment of Iranian population to AFB1.
    Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 03/2013; 12(Suppl):83-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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