Effect of P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux on cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in rhesus monkeys.
ABSTRACT Brain penetration of drugs which are subject to P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated efflux is attenuated, as manifested by the fact that the cerebrospinal fluid concentration (C(CSF)), a good surrogate of the unbound brain concentration (C(ub)), is lower than the unbound plasma concentration (C(up)) for Pgp substrates. In rodents, the attenuation magnitude of brain penetration by Pgp-mediated efflux has been estimated by correlating the ratio of CSF to plasma exposures (C(CSF)/C(p)) with the unbound fraction in plasma (f(u)) upon the incorporation of the in vivo or in vitro Pgp-mediated efflux ratios (ERs). In the present work, we investigated the impact of Pgp-mediated efflux on C(CSF) in monkeys. Following intravenous administration to cisterna magna ported rhesus monkeys, the CSF and plasma concentrations were determined for 25 compounds from three discovery programs. We also evaluated their f(u) in rhesus plasma and ER in human and African green monkey MDR-transfected LLC-PK1 cells. These compounds varied significantly in the f(u) (0.025-0.73), and 24 out of 25 are considered Pgp substrates based on their appreciable directional transport (ER>2). The C(CSF)/C(p) was significantly lower than the corresponding f(u) (>or=3-fold) for 16 compounds regardless of a significant correlation (R(2)=0.59, p=4 x 10(-5)) when the C(CSF)/C(p) was plotted against the f(u). When the f(u) was normalized to the ER (f(u)/ER) the correlation was improved (R(2)=0.75, p=8 x 10(-8)). More importantly, only one compound showed the C(CSF)/C(p) that exceeded 3-fold of the normalized f(u). The results suggest that the impact of Pgp-mediated efflux in monkeys, similar to the case in rodents, is reasonably reflected by the gradient between the free concentrations in plasma and in CSF. Therefore, f(u) and Pgp ER may serve as useful measurements in estimating in vivo C(CSF)/C(p) ratios in monkeys, and potentially in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Nonhuman primate species have been selectively used in the scientific investigation of adult and newborn neurological diseases. The rhesus monkey has been utilized in models of term asphyxial insults, accurately reflecting the mechanisms and neuropathology demonstrated in the newborn human infant. More recently, a premature baboon model developed for evaluation of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has been applied to the investigation of cerebral development and injury, revealing high similarity in neuropathology to the premature human infant. Given the differences in the outcomes of neuroprotective therapies between lower order species, such as the rat, and human trials in disorders such as stroke, nonhuman primate models may provide an invaluable resource for safety and efficacy testing before trials in human newborns. This article summarizes both models of brain injury. The histologic findings from the models are compared with neuropathological studies in human infants.Seminars in Perinatology 01/2005; 28(6):396-404. · 2.81 Impact Factor
- 5th 01/1999: pages xiii, 650 p.; Mosby., ISBN: 0323013201 (pbk.)
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ABSTRACT: 1. The use of a beneficial interaction between indinavir and compound A, a potent investigational HIV protease inhibitor to enhance systemic exposure of compound A, was investigated. 2. When administrated alone, compound A underwent extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism in rats and monkeys, resulting in low oral bioavailability. 3. In vitro studies with liver microsomes revealed that compound A metabolism was mediated exclusively by CYP3A enzymes in rats, dogs and monkeys. Indinavir, which also was metabolized predominantly by CYP3A enzymes, extensively inhibited compound A metabolism in microsomes, whereas compound A showed weak inhibitory potency on indinavir metabolism. 4. Consistent with in vitro observations, co-administration of the two compounds resulted in a 17-fold increase in oral AUC of compound A in rats owing to the inhibition of metabolism of compound A by indinavir, whereas compound A did not affect indinavir metabolism as indicated by the unchanged indinavir AUC. Similarly, the systemic exposure of compound A in dogs and monkeys was increased substantially following oral co-administration with indinavir by 7- and > 50-fold, respectively. 5. Enhancement in compound A systemic exposure by indinavir in humans, as predicted based on the in vivo animal and in vitro human liver microsomal data, was confirmed in subsequent clinical studies.Xenobiotica 07/2003; 33(6):643-54. · 1.98 Impact Factor