Cytochrome P450-catalysed arene-epoxidation of the bioactive tea tree oil ingredient p-cymene: indication for the formation of a reactive allergenic intermediate?
ABSTRACT 1. The cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the tea tree oil ingredient p-cymene (p-isopropyltoluene) was studied by the application of in vitro enzymatic assays using different recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. 2. In total, four enzymatic products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enzymatic products identified were: thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol), p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol, p,alpha,alpha-trimethylbenzyl alcohol, and p-isopropylbenzaldehyde. 3. The enzymatic products of p-cymene resulted from catalysed enzymatic arene-epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions by the studied cytochrome P450 enzymes. 4. An in vivo study could only confirm the formation of one enzymatic product, namely thymol. Thymol was identified after enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulphate conjugates in collected blood and urine samples. 5. The obtained results may help to increase the understanding of cases where skin sensitization and irritation by tea tree oil-containing products that are involved with allergic reactions of users of these products. The results also indicate that skin sensitization and irritation reactions not only can be explained by the frequently in literature reported auto-oxidation of tea tree resulting in bioactive oxidized products, but also now by the formation of epoxide intermediates resulting from catalysed arene-epoxidation reactions by selected human cytochrome P450 enzymes which are also located in different organs in humans.
SourceAvailable from: Bernhard Wehrli
Article: Spätfolgen der Überdüngung Editorial
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ABSTRACT: Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.014 · 2.99 Impact Factor