Ligands for retinoic acid receptors are elevated in osteoarthritis and may contribute to pathologic processes in the osteoarthritic joint.
ABSTRACT Vitamin A derivatives, including all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), have a well-established role during skeletal development and limb formation and have been shown to have profound effects on chondrocyte phenotype. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of retinoids and components of the retinoid metabolic pathway on chondrocyte phenotype in the tibiofemoral joints of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), to show that the retinoids can have multiple effects relevant to the OA disease process.
Human explant tissue and a chondrocyte-like cell line were treated with ATRA, and the responses of 4 key markers of chondrocyte phenotype were analyzed. In addition, the effects of ATRA on a number of novel genes associated with OA were assessed using a low-density microarray containing 80 disease marker genes.
Vitamin A metabolite levels were elevated in synovial fluid, serum, and cartilage from patients with OA. Expression profiling of a retinoic acid receptor alpha coactivator protein, P/CAF, demonstrated elevated expression in patients with OA, suggesting the potential for increased signaling via the retinoid receptors in the disease. ATRA increased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and aggrecanase activity in human cartilage explants and in a human chondrocyte cell line. Furthermore, ATRA altered the expression of a wide range of relevant genes, including the types I, II, IX, and XI collagen genes, toward a nonchondrogenic and OA-like phenotype.
These results suggest that retinoid signaling could have a central role in OA, and that components of the pathway may provide potential disease biomarkers or targets for therapeutic intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease for which there are no disease-modifying drugs. It is a leading cause of disability in the UK. Increasing age and obesity are both major risk factors for OA and the health and economic burden of this disease will increase in the future. Focusing on compounds from the habitual diet that may prevent the onset or slow the progression of OA is a strategy that has been under-investigated to date. An approach that relies on dietary modification is clearly attractive in terms of risk/benefit and more likely to be implementable at the population level. However, before undertaking a full clinical trial to examine potential efficacy, detailed molecular studies are required in order to optimise the design. This review focuses on potential dietary factors that may reduce the risk or progression of OA, including micronutrients, fatty acids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. It therefore ignores data coming from classical inflammatory arthritides and nutraceuticals such as glucosamine and chondroitin. In conclusion, diet offers a route by which the health of the joint can be protected and OA incidence or progression decreased. In a chronic disease, with risk factors increasing in the population and with no pharmaceutical cure, an understanding of this will be crucial.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 02/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arthritis is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal problems, causing pain, disability, and a significant economic burden. In this article, we discuss current nonsurgical injectable treatment options as well as future trends for cartilage lesions and early arthritis of the knee. We cover some potential treatments for knee osteoarthritis, including stem cell and gene therapies.Clinics in sports medicine 01/2014; 33(1):161-74. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of a reduction in the systemic ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on changes in inflammation, glucose metabolism, and the idiopathic development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. We hypothesized that a lower ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs would protect against OA markers in cartilage and synovium, but not bone.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor