Long-term medical costs and resource utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a five-year analysis of a large medicaid population.
ABSTRACT To estimate the long-term direct medical costs and health care utilization for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a subset of SLE patients with nephritis.
Patients with newly active SLE were found in the MarketScan Medicaid Database (1999-2005), which includes all inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, and pharmaceutical claims for more than 10 million Medicaid beneficiaries. The date a patient became newly active was defined as the earliest observed SLE diagnosis code, with a 6-month clean period prior to the diagnosis. This method identified 2,298 patients with a consecutive followup of 5 years. A reference group of patients without SLE was constructed using propensity score matching. Nephritis was assessed based on diagnosis and procedure codes involving the kidney.
Mean annual medical costs for SLE patients totaled $16,089 at year 1, which is significantly greater (by $6,831) than that for reference patients. Costs decreased slightly at year 2 but then increased yearly at an average rate of 16% through year 5, to $23,860. SLE patients without nephritis (n = 1,809) had costs $967-3,756 higher than the reference patients. SLE patients with nephritis (n = 489) had costs $13,228-34,907 greater than the reference group. Inpatient visits for the nephritis subgroup were 0.6-1.0 per capita, which are approximately twice the rate for all SLE patients and 3 to 4 times higher than the reference group.
SLE is a costly condition to treat. Medical expenses incurred by SLE patients increase steadily over time, particularly for patients with nephritis.
Article: Increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a nationwide population-based study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, most studies have been criticized for either a small sample size or the lack of a prospective control. Our study investigated the relationship of SLE and the subsequent development of ischemic stroke using a nationwide, population-based database in an Asian population. From 2000 to 2007, we identified a study cohort consisting of a total of 11,637 newly diagnosed SLE patients using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort of 58,185 subjects without SLE, matched for age, gender, and comorbidities were selected for comparison to observe the occurrence of ischemic stroke in these two groups. During a follow-up period of up to 7 years, ischemic stroke developed in 258 (2.22%) of the patients with SLE and in 873 (1.5%) of patients in the comparison cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis also revealed a tendency of SLE patients toward ischemic stroke development (log rank test, p = 0.001). After Cox model adjustment for patients' demographic characteristics and selected comorbidities, patients with SLE were found to have a 1.67-fold (95% CI, 1.45 to 1.91) higher risk of developing ischemic stroke. Patients with SLE have an increased risk of stroke.Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(1):17-21. · 0.94 Impact Factor
Article: The association of tooth scaling and decreased cardiovascular disease: a nationwide population-based study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Poor oral hygiene has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the association between preventive dentistry and cardiovascular risk reduction has remained undetermined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between tooth scaling and the risk of cardiovascular events by using a nationwide, population-based study and a prospective cohort design. Our analyses were conducted using information from a random sample of 1 million persons enrolled in the nationally representative Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Exposed individuals consisted of all subjects who were aged ≥ 50 years and who received at least 1 tooth scaling in 2000. The comparison group of non-exposed persons consisted of persons who did not undergo tooth scaling and were matched to exposed individuals using propensity score matching by the time of enrollment, age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. During an average follow-up period of 7 years, 10,887 subjects who had ever received tooth scaling (exposed group) and 10,989 age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched subjects who had not received tooth scaling (non-exposed group) were enrolled. The exposed group had a lower incidence of acute myocardial infarction (1.6% vs 2.2%, P<.001), stroke (8.9% vs 10%, P=.03), and total cardiovascular events (10% vs 11.6%, P<.001) when compared with the non-exposed group. After multivariate analysis, tooth scaling was an independent factor associated with less risk of developing future myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.85), stroke (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), and total cardiovascular events (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91). Furthermore, when compared with the non-exposed group, increasing frequency of tooth scaling correlated with a higher risk reduction of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and total cardiovascular events (P for trend<.001). Tooth scaling was associated with a decreased risk for future cardiovascular events.The American journal of medicine 04/2012; 125(6):568-75. · 4.47 Impact Factor