Impact of training on changes in perceived stress and cytokine production.
ABSTRACT Data on training of competitive athletes and the inflammatory response, and, more specifically, the utility of psychological inventories to monitor this response in regards to overreaching is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and inflammatory markers in elite rowers. Eight rowers (males n = 4; females n = 4) were monitored over an 8-week training period, comprising 12 sessions each week and training an average 3.11 h.d(-1). Training volume was periodized weekly while intensity was maintained throughout the study. Perceived stress was measured weekly pretraining, and capillary blood samples (500 microL) were taken post-training. Significant associations between perceived stress and cytokines interleukin-6 (p < .05) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (p < .05) were observed. While further investigation of the role of cytokines in the overtraining process is required, these data provide preliminary support for an association between perceived stress and the inflammatory responses to training.
Article: Five-day whole-body cryostimulation, blood inflammatory markers, and performance in high-ranking professional tennis players.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Controlled laboratory study. National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s): Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (-120°C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor α) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor α and an increase in interleukin 6.Journal of athletic training 01/2012; 47(6):664-72. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) are increased after exhaustive exercise in the rat retroperitoneal (RPAT) and mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT) pads. On the other hand, these cytokines show decreased expression in these depots in response to a chronic exercise protocol. However, the effect of exercise with overload combined with a short recovery period on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of cytokine production in the adipose tissue of rats after an overtraining-inducing exercise protocol. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), Trained (Tr), Overtrained (OT) and recovered overtrained (R). Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) levels and Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), Nuclear Factor kBp65 (NF-kBp65), Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) and, Perilipin protein expression were assessed in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, we analysed plasma lipid profile, insulin, testosterone, corticosterone and endotoxin levels, and liver triacylglycerol, cytokine content, as well as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and TLR4 expression in the liver. OT and R groups exhibited reduced performance accompanied by lower testosterone and increased corticosterone and endotoxin levels when compared with the control and trained groups. IL-6 and IL-10 protein levels were increased in the adipose tissue of the group allowed to recover, in comparison with all the other studied groups. TLR-4 and NF-kBp65 were increased in this same group when compared with both control and trained groups. The protein expression of HSL was increased and that of Perilipin, decreased in the adipose in R in relation to the control. In addition, we found increased liver and serum TAG, along with reduced apoB protein expression and IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the of R in relation to the control and trained groups. In conclusion, we have shown that increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the adipose tissue after an overtraining protocol may be mediated via TLR-4 and NF-kBp65 signalling, leading to an inflammatory state in this tissue.Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2010; 9:109. · 2.17 Impact Factor