Effect of acylethanolamides on lipid peroxidation and paraoxonase activity.
ABSTRACT N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) are hydrophobic molecules synthesized in many tissues. An increase in the plasma levels of NAEs has been observed in human diseases. Previous studies have suggested that NAEs could exert a protective effect against oxidative stress. Aim of the study was to investigate whether NAEs (oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and anandamide), differing for acyl chain length and unsaturation, exert a protective role against plasma lipid peroxidation triggered by incubation with Cu2+2 or AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride). Moreover, we investigated the effect of NAEs on the activity of HDL-associated paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in the antioxidant end anti-inflammatory role of human high density lipoproteins (HDL). The results demonstrated that the NAEs protect plasma lipids and PON1 activity against AAPH and/or copper-induced oxidation.
- SourceAvailable from: Nissar Darmani[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The endogenous cannabimimetic compound, and anandamide analogue, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA), was shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in experimental models of visceral, neuropathic and inflammatory pain by acting via several possible mechanisms. However, only scant data have been reported on the regulation of PEA levels during pathological conditions in animals or, particularly, humans. We review the current literature on PEA and report the results of three separate studies indicating that its concentrations are significantly increased during three different inflammatory and neuropathic conditions, two of which have been assessed in humans, and one in a mouse model. In patients affected with chronic low back pain, blood PEA levels were not significantly different from those of healthy volunteers, but were significantly and differentially increased (1.6-fold, P<0.01, N=10 per group) 30 min following an osteopathic manipulative treatment. In the second study, the paw skin levels of PEA in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain were found to be significantly higher (1.5-fold, P<0.005, N=5) than those of control mice. In the third study, colonic PEA levels in biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis were found to be 1.8-fold higher (P<0.05, N=8-10) than those in healthy subjects. These heterogeneous data, together with previous findings reviewed here, substantiate the hypothesis that PEA is an endogenous mediator whose levels are increased following neuroinflammatory or neuropathic conditions in both animals and humans, possibly to exert a local anti-inflammatory and analgesic action.Neuropharmacology 06/2005; 48(8):1154-63. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium with anandamide bound to BSA inside resealed human red cell membranes at low molar ratios below one. Data were obtained at 0 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 23 degrees C, and 37 degrees C. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) increases with temperature from 6.87 +/- 0.53 nM at 0 degrees C to 54.92 +/- 1.91 nM at 37 degrees C. Regression analyses of the data suggest that BSA has one high-affinity binding site for anandamide at all four temperatures. The free energy of anandamide binding (DeltaG0) is calculated to -43.05 kJ mol-1 with a large enthalpy (DeltaH0) contribution of -42.09 kJ mol-1. Anandamide has vasodilator activity, and the binding to albumin may mediate its transport in aqueous compartments.The Journal of Lipid Research 10/2003; 44(9):1790-4. · 4.39 Impact Factor
Article: Paraoxonase and atherosclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is considerable evidence that the antioxidant activity of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is largely due to the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) located on it. Experiments with transgenic PON1 knockout mice indicate the potential for PON1 to protect against atherogenesis. This protective effect of HDL against low density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid peroxidation is maintained longer than is the protective effect of antioxidant vitamins and could thus be more important. There is evidence that the genetic polymorphisms of PON1 least able to protect LDL against lipid peroxidation are overrepresented in coronary heart disease, particularly in association with diabetes. However, these polymorphisms explain only part of the variation in serum PON1 activity; thus, a more critical test of the hypothesis is likely to be whether low serum PON1 activity is associated with coronary heart disease. Preliminary case-control evidence suggests that this is indeed the case and, thus, that the quest for dietary and pharmacological means of modifying serum PON1 activity may allow the oxidant model of atherosclerosis to be tested in clinical trials.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 05/2001; 21(4):473-80. · 6.34 Impact Factor