Aberrant de novo methylation of the p16INK4A CpG island is initiated post gene silencing in association with chromatin remodelling and mimics nucleosome positioning.
ABSTRACT Changes in the epigenetic landscape are widespread in neoplasia, with de novo methylation and histone repressive marks commonly enriched in CpG island associated promoter regions. DNA hypermethylation and histone repression correlate with gene silencing, however, the dynamics of this process are still largely unclear. The tumour suppressor gene p16(INK4A) is inactivated in association with CpG island methylation during neoplastic progression in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Here, we investigated the temporal progression of DNA methylation and histone remodelling in the p16(INK4A) CpG island in primary human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) strains during selection, as a model for early breast cancer. Silencing of p16(INK4A) has been previously shown to be necessary before HMECs can escape from selection. Here, we demonstrate that gene silencing occurs prior to de novo methylation and histone remodelling. An increase in DNA methylation was associated with a rapid loss of both histone H3K27 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation and a gradual gain of H3K9 dimethylation. Interestingly, we found that regional-specific 'seeding' methylation occurs early after post-selection and that the de novo methylation pattern observed in HMECs correlates with the apparent footprint of nucleosomes across the p16(INK4A) CpG island. Our results demonstrate for the first time that p16(INK4A) gene silencing is a precursor to epigenetic suppression and that subsequent de novo methylation initially occurs in nucleosome-free regions across the p16(INK4A) CpG island and this is associated with a dynamic change in histone modifications.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexey Stepanenko[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The process of cellular transformation has been amply studied in vitro using immortalized cell lines. Immortalized cells never have the normal diploid karyotype, nevertheless, they cannot grow over one another in cell culture (contact inhibition), do not form colonies in soft agar (anchorage-dependent growth) and do not form tumors when injected into immunodeficient rodents. All these characteristics can be obtained with additional chromosome changes. Multiple genetic rearrangements, including whole chromosome and gene copy number gains and losses, chromosome translocations, gene mutations are necessary for establishing the malignant cell phenotype. Most of the experiments detecting transforming ability of genes overexpressed and/or mutated in tumors (oncogenes) were performed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, human embryonic kidney 293 cell line (HEK293), and human mammary epithelial cell lines (mainly HMECs and MC-F10A). These cell lines have abnormal karyotypes and are prone to progress to malignantly transformed cells. This review is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of cell immortalization by different "immortalizing agents", oncogene-induced cell transformation of immortalized cells and moderate response of the advanced tumors to anticancer therapy in the light of tumor "oncogene and chromosome addiction", intra-/intertumor heterogeneity, and chromosome instability.T͡Sitologii͡a i genetika 01/2012; 46(2):36-75.
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ABSTRACT: Overnutrition, such as a high-fat (HF) diet, is a feature followed by some in developed nations that leads to obesity and fatty liver disease. In rats, when fed a fat-high diet, some develop obesity (obesity prone, OP) while others display an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. The present study investigated the differences between OP and OR rats on their activation of hepatic cellular senescence pathways on a HF diet. Male OP and OR rats were fed a HF diet containing 45% kcal from fat for 13 wk, and livers were collected for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. OP rats were 41% heavier than OR rats, despite consuming the same amount of food. Triacylglycerol levels were increased significantly in both plasma and liver of OP rats. Gene analysis demonstrated a significant increase of both the amount and the transcription rates of p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) mRNA in OP rats. The increased p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) also caused a significant decrease in the level of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In OP rats, the increase of p16(INK4a) was associated with the higher acetylation levels of histone H4 at the p16(INK4a) promoter and coding region and lower methylation level of histone H3 lysine-27 in the p16(INK4a) coding region. The increase of p21(Cip1) was associated with increased acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 and decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine-27 at the p21(Cip1) promoter. In the p21(Cip1) coding region, dimethylation of histone H3 lysine-4 was significantly higher (P <0.05) in livers of OP rats compared with OR rats.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 12/2011; 302(5):G558-64. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epigenetic modifications have been reported to be key factors in breast carcinogenesis. In the current study, it has been tried to determine the methylation status of two tumour suppressor genes p14/ARF and p16/INK4a in 150 breast cancer patients as well as 150 controls by using MSP-PCR. There was, highly significant difference in methylation of p14/ARF and p16/INK4a (P = 0.000) between patients and controls. Methylation of both the genes together significantly increased the risk of breast cancer by 12.31 folds. The present study concludes that hypermethylation of p14/ARF and p16/INK4a promoters demonstrate significant association with the risk of breast cancer, hence indicating these as important tumour suppressor genes involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in North Indian population (i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh as well as Union Territory of Chandigarh).Molecular Biology Reports 05/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor