Nutritional status assessment before, during, and after long-duration head-down bed rest.

Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA.
Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.88). 06/2009; 80(5 Suppl):A15-22.
Source: PubMed


Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes that are associated with spaceflight. Nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 d of head-down bed rest were evaluated.
A total of 13 subjects (8 men, 5 women; ages 26-54 yr) participated in either 60 or 90 d of bed rest. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and about once per month during bed rest. Samples were stored frozen and batch analyzed. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance.
During bed rest, markers of bone resorption (such as N-telopeptide excretion, P < 0.001) increased and serum concentration of parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001). Also, oxidative damage markers such as superoxide dismutase increased (P < 0.05), and after 90 d of bed rest, total antioxidant capacity decreased (P < 0.05). During bed rest, iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores with a decreased concentration of transferrin receptors (P < 0.01).
These changes are similar to some of those observed during spaceflight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of spaceflight.

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    • "Typically in bed rest studies bone formation markers remain unchanged in the control group (Smith et al. 2009b; Zwart et al. 2009b; Morgan et al. 2012b), but because of the large number of subjects in this study, we were able to detect smaller differences. As in previous bed rest studies (Smith et al. 2005b, 2009c; Smith and Zwart 2008; Zwart et al. 2009b; Morgan et al. 2012b), the data here indicate that bone resorption increases during periods of skeletal unloading. Men and women had similar increases in bone resorption markers, with a roughly 90–107% increase measured by the end of 90 days of bed rest, relative to the concentrations of markers before bed rest (Fig. 1B). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to directly assess sex differences in bone loss, bone biochemistry, and renal stone risk in bed rest. Bed rest simulates some spaceflight effects on human physiology and can be used to address the potential existence of sex-specific effects on bone metabolism and renal stone risk in space. We combined data from the control subjects in five head-down-tilt bed rest studies (combined n = 50 men, 24 women) of differing durations (14–90 days). All subjects were healthy volunteers. Mean age was 35 ± 9 years for women and 33 ± 8 years for men. The main outcome measures were bone density and biochemistry, and renal stone risk chemistry. Before bed rest began, men had higher bone mineral density and content (P < 0.001), and excreted more biomarkers of bone resorption and calcium per day than did women (P < 0.05). These differences remained during bed rest. A number of urine chemistry analytes increased (e.g., calcium) or decreased (e.g., sodium, citrate, and urine volume) significantly for men and women during bed rest. These changes may predispose men to higher stone risk. Men and women do not have substantially different responses to the skeletal unloading of bed rest.
    08/2014; 2(8). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12119
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    ABSTRACT: We report results from a study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to bone loss induced by microgravity simulation. After baseline testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with spaceflight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG; 1 G(z) at the heart, 2.5 G(z) at the feet) each day for 21 days, whereas seven of the subjects served as untreated controls (Con). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers increased during bed rest, but the AG and Con groups did not differ significantly. The same was true for serum C-telopeptide. During bed rest, bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total ALP tended to be lower in the AG group (P = 0.08, P = 0.09). Neither BMC nor BMD changed significantly from the pre-bed rest period in AG or Con groups, and the two groups were not significantly different. However, when AG and Con data were combined, there was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of time for whole body total BMC and total hip and trochanter BMD. These data failed to demonstrate efficacy of this AG prescription to prevent the changes in bone metabolism observed during 3 wk of bed rest.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2008; 107(1):47-53. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.91134.2008 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spaceflight and bed rest models of microgravity have profound effects on physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. These effects can be exacerbated by suboptimal nutrient status, and therefore it is critical to monitor nutritional status when evaluating countermeasures to mitigate negative effects of spaceflight. As part of a larger study to investigate the usefulness of artificial gravity as a countermeasure for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deficits during bed rest, we tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity would have an effect on some aspects of nutritional status. Dietary intake was recorded daily before, during, and after 21 days of bed rest with artificial gravity (n = 8) or bed rest alone (n = 7). We examined body composition, hematology, general blood chemistry, markers of oxidative damage, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals before, during, and after the bed rest period. Several indicators of vitamin status changed in response to diet changes: serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid decreased (P < 0.001) and plasma beta-carotene increased (P < 0.001) in both groups during bed rest compared with before bed rest. A decrease in hematocrit (P < 0.001) after bed rest was accompanied by a decrease in transferrin (P < 0.001), but transferrin receptors were not changed. These data provide evidence that artificial gravity itself does not negatively affect nutritional status during bed rest. Likewise, artificial gravity has no protective effect on nutritional status during bed rest.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2008; 107(1):54-62. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.91136.2008 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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