Comparing Polychaete and Polyethylene Uptake to Assess Sediment Resuspension Effects on PCB Bioavailability
ABSTRACT Polyethylene sampler uptake was compared to polychaete uptake to assess bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resuspended sediments. New Bedford Harbor (MA, U.S.) sediment contaminated with PCBs, was resuspended under four different water column oxidation conditions: resuspension alone, resuspension under aeration, resuspension under helium, and no resuspension (control). Residuals were tested for differences in PCB availability to the marine polychaete Nereis virens and to polyethylene (PE) passive samplers. Few significant differences between the four resuspension treatments were observed: under aeration, three of 23 PCBs analyzed showed significant increases in polychaete accumulation, while resuspension alone showed increased concentrations in PE samplers for nine of 23 PCBs. Otherwise, no differences were observed and overall we concluded that resuspension had no effect on residual PCB availability. The relationship between disequilibrium-corrected PE and lipid-normalized polychaete PCB concentrations was nearly 1:1 with a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.877), demonstrating PCBs are taken up similarly into PE and lipid. On average, PE samplers suggested dissolved PCB concentrations 3.6 times greater than those calculated with lipid-water partitioning, though on a congener-specific basis this was only observed for lower chlorinated PCBs; for higher chlorinated PCBs, PE-water partitioning suggested lower dissolved concentrations than those based on lipid. Organic carbon (OC)-water and OC and black carbon combined (OC+BC)-water partitioning suggested average dissolved concentrations 29 and 10 times greater, respectively, than those estimated with lipid-water partitioning. This demonstrates that PE-measured porewater concentrations can provide a more reliable estimate of bioavailability than sediment geochemistry.
SourceAvailable from: Birthe V Kjellerup[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The time required for a PCB-contaminated site to recover cannot yet be predicted due in part to lack of quantitative information on rates of PCB dechlorination in porewater phase. We developed a method to measure rate of dechlorination in the aqueous phase at very low PCB concentrations. This approach utilizes a polymer functioning concurrently as a passive dosing system for maintaining a steady state PCB substrate concentration in the water phase and as a passive equilibrium sampler to monitor the dechlorination product. Rates of dechlorination of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 61) to 2,3,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 23) by an organohalide respiring bacterium, Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF-1, were measured over an environmentally relevant range of 1 ng L-1 to 500 ng L-1 in sediment-free medium using a high concentration of cells (>106 cells mL-1). The results indicate that rate of dechlorination is a linear function of PCB substrate concentration below the maximum aqueous solubility of PCB 61 and occurs at concentrations as low as 1 ng L-1. Demonstration of PCB 61 dechlorination at environmentally relevant concentrations suggests that low numbers of organohalide respiring bacteria rather than bioavailability accounts for low rates of dechlorination typically observed in sediments. Using passive samplers to measure the concentration of dissolved PCBs in the porewater combined with knowledge of congener-specific rates for organohalide respirer(s), it will be possible to project the in situ rate and final concentration of PCBs for a specific site after treatment by bioaugmentation.Environmental Science & Technology 03/2014; 48(8). DOI:10.1021/es404265d · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pore concentration and partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five distinct contaminated sites in France (marine harbour, rivers canals and highway sedimentation tank). The assessment of the risk caused by such micropollutants requires, in most cases, the measurement of their availability. To assess this availability, low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane samplers were exposed to these sediments under constant and low-level agitation over a period of 46days. Freely dissolved pore water contaminant concentrations were estimated from the concentration at equilibrium in the LDPE membrane. The depletion of contaminants in the sediments was monitored by the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations and resulting sediment-pore water partition coefficients between these five sediments were observed. Data set was tested onto different empirical and mechanistic models. As final findings, triple domain sorption (a total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phase model) could model PCB data successfully whereas the best fitting for PAH partitioning was obtained by Raoult's Law model.Science of The Total Environment 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.125 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sediment and polyethylene sampler-based estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Newark Bay, New Jersey (USA) benthic biota were compared. Biota concentrations based on sediment were estimated using an organic carbon (OC)-water partitioning model and an OC and black carbon (BC)-water dual model. Biota concentrations based on polyethylene were estimated from samplers deployed in the Newark Bay water column and samplers immersed in a sediment/porewater slurry in the laboratory. Porewater samplers provided the best estimates of biota concentrations (within 3.1×), with best results achieved for deposit-feeders (within 1.6×). Polyethylene deployed in deep water also provided good estimates of biota concentrations (within 4×). By contrast, OC-water partitioning overestimated biota concentrations by up to 7×, while OC and BC combined underestimated biota concentrations by up to 13×. We recommend passive samplers such as polyethylene for estimating concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in field biota given its simplicity and relatively lower uncertainty compared to sediment equilibrium partitioning.Environmental Pollution 12/2013; 186C:172-179. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.002 · 3.90 Impact Factor