Comparing Polychaete and Polyethylene Uptake to Assess Sediment Resuspension Effects on PCB Bioavailability
ABSTRACT Polyethylene sampler uptake was compared to polychaete uptake to assess bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resuspended sediments. New Bedford Harbor (MA, U.S.) sediment contaminated with PCBs, was resuspended under four different water column oxidation conditions: resuspension alone, resuspension under aeration, resuspension under helium, and no resuspension (control). Residuals were tested for differences in PCB availability to the marine polychaete Nereis virens and to polyethylene (PE) passive samplers. Few significant differences between the four resuspension treatments were observed: under aeration, three of 23 PCBs analyzed showed significant increases in polychaete accumulation, while resuspension alone showed increased concentrations in PE samplers for nine of 23 PCBs. Otherwise, no differences were observed and overall we concluded that resuspension had no effect on residual PCB availability. The relationship between disequilibrium-corrected PE and lipid-normalized polychaete PCB concentrations was nearly 1:1 with a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.877), demonstrating PCBs are taken up similarly into PE and lipid. On average, PE samplers suggested dissolved PCB concentrations 3.6 times greater than those calculated with lipid-water partitioning, though on a congener-specific basis this was only observed for lower chlorinated PCBs; for higher chlorinated PCBs, PE-water partitioning suggested lower dissolved concentrations than those based on lipid. Organic carbon (OC)-water and OC and black carbon combined (OC+BC)-water partitioning suggested average dissolved concentrations 29 and 10 times greater, respectively, than those estimated with lipid-water partitioning. This demonstrates that PE-measured porewater concentrations can provide a more reliable estimate of bioavailability than sediment geochemistry.
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- "bioaccumulation assessments (Vinturella et al. 2004; Friedman et al. 2009; Fagervold et al. 2010; Gschwend et al. 2011). "
ABSTRACT: This manuscript provides practical guidance on the use of passive sampling methods (PSMs) that target the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) for improved exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments. Primary considerations for selecting a PSM for a specific application include clear delineation of measurement goals for Cfree , whether laboratory-based "ex-situ" and/or field-based "in-situ" application is desired, and ultimately which PSM is best suited to fulfill the measurement objectives. Guidelines for proper calibration and validation of PSMs, including use of provisional values for polymer-water partition coefficients, determination of equilibrium status, and confirmation of non-depletive measurement conditions are defined. A hypothetical example is described to illustrate how the measurement of Cfree afforded by PSMs reduces uncertainty in assessing narcotic toxicity for sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research that will improve the quality and robustness of Cfree measurements using PSMs, providing a sound scientific basis to support risk assessment and contaminated sediment management decisions. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 04/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1002/ieam.1507
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- "Whether dredging residuals have greater bioavailability than native sediments has been researched to a limited extent. Friedman et al. (2009) showed in laboratory studies using New Bedford Harbor sediments that generated residuals (sediments that were resuspended and allowed to redeposit) generally did not have increased contaminant bioavailability of PCBs compared with control sediments. "
ABSTRACT: Timely and effective remediation of contaminated sediments is essential for protecting human health and the environment and restoring beneficial uses to waterways. A number of site operational conditions influence the effect of environmental dredging of contaminated sediment on aquatic systems. Site experience shows that resuspension of contaminated sediment and release of contaminants occur during dredging and that contaminated sediment residuals will remain after operations. It is also understood that these processes affect the magnitude, distribution, and bioavailability of the contaminants, and hence the exposure and risk to receptors of concern. However, even after decades of sediment remediation project experience, substantial uncertainties still exist in our understanding of the cause-effect relationships relating dredging processes to risk. During the past few years, contaminated sediment site managers, researchers, and practitioners have recognized the need to better define and understand dredging-related processes. In this article, we present information and research needs on these processes as synthesized from recent symposia, reports, and remediation efforts. Although predictions about the effect of environmental dredging continue to improve, a clear need remains to better understand the effect that sediment remediation processes have on contaminant exposures and receptors of concern. Collecting, learning from, and incorporating new information into practice is the only avenue to improving the effectiveness of remedial operations.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 10/2010; 6(4):619-30. DOI:10.1002/ieam.71
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ABSTRACT: This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.