Article

Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

Acta Botanica Brasilica (Impact Factor: 0.55). 06/2006; 20(2):257-264. DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062006000200002

ABSTRACT There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed properties compatible to be used as an efficient mounting medium, in substitution to the imported synthetic resins, at a lower cost and without alterations in the routine process. The verniz vitral incolor 500® allowed the production of permanent slides with plant organs sectioned hand free as well in rotatory microtome, after paraffin or historesin embedding, keeping unaltered the tissue and color charactheristics. The results showed that the tradicional resins can be replaced by the verniz vitral incolor 500®, not compromising the quality of the slides.

0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The galls induced by Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, are very diverse, with conspicuous evidence of tissue manipulation by the galling herbivores. Bud galls, as those induced by an unidentified Cecidomyiidae species on Marcetia taxifolia, Melastomataceae, can be considered as one of the most complex type of prosoplasma galls. The gall-inducer manipulate the axillary meristem of the plant in a way that gall morphogenesis may present both vegetative and reproductive features of the host plant. Herein, we analyzed traces of determinate and indeterminate growth in the bud gall of M. taxifolia, looking for parallels between the features of the leaves and flowers, natural fates of the meristematic cells. The bud galls are induced by the cecidomyiid fly, and are formed by the connation of eight leaf primordia, a common process in ovary morphogenesis. The bud gall corresponds to a pistil-shaped gall morphotype, with anatomical features similar to those of an hypanthium and sepals. The gall mimics an ovary, which has protective barriers at the apex, and a nutritive tissue (with storage of lipids and proteins) or a placenta, respectively, at the basal portion. The redifferentiation of the promeristem into a nutritive tissue at the base of the gall confers a determinate destiny to the axillary bud. Comparatively, the gradients of cell expansion and of accumulation of primary metabolites also indicate that the gall and the ovary are convergent structures. Some constraints of the host plant cells, such as the absence of lignification, and the accumulation of polyphenols, lipids and terpenoids, are not altered and may confer chemical protection for plant tissues and the larva against oxidative stress.
    Flora - Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.flora.2014.06.004 · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding factors that modulate plant development is still a challenging task in plant biology. Although research has highlighted the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining final plant structure, we know little of how these factors combine to produce specific developmental patterns. Here, we studied patterns of cell and tissue organisation in galled and non-galled organs of Baccharis reticularia, a Neotropical shrub that hosts over ten species of galling insects. We employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand patterns of growth and differentiation in its four most abundant gall morphotypes. We compared two leaf galls induced by sap-sucking Hemiptera and stem galls induced by a Lepidopteran and a Dipteran, Cecidomyiidae. The hypotheses tested were: (i) the more complex the galls, the more distinct they are from their non-galled host; (ii) galls induced on less plastic host organs, e.g. stems, develop under more morphogenetic constraints and, therefore, should be more similar among themselves than galls induced on more plastic organs. We also evaluated the plant sex preference of gall-inducing insects for oviposition. Simple galls were qualitative and quantitatively more similar to non-galled organs than complex galls, thereby supporting the first hypothesis. Unexpectedly, stem galls had more similarities between them than to their host organ, hence only partially supporting the second hypothesis. Similarity among stem galls may be caused by the restrictive pattern of host stems. The opposite trend was observed for host leaves, which generate either similar or distinct gall morphotypes due to their higher phenotypic plasticity. The Relative Distance of Plasticity Index for non-galled stems and stem galls ranged from 0.02 to 0.42. Our results strongly suggest that both tissue plasticity and gall inducer identity interact to determine plant developmental patterns, and therefore, final gall structure.
    Plant Biology 08/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/plb.12232 · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work presents a compact herborization hot chamber, easily set up in a stand with six shelves. The heating system consists of four 100W incandescent lamps which operate at optimum temperature if you activate two lamps to a high temperature, when four lamps are on, if necessary. The hot chamber was built and tested with fine preservation of herborized plant colors if warmed by two lamps (42 o C). Under maximum temperature (55.5 o C), there was degradation of colors of the material although the final result was mechanically satisfactory herbarium specimens. The longest period of time required to recover the final temperature for a change of press was 17 minutes. With such results, one concludes that the hot chamber described is efficient, compact, and a fine solution for laboratories and herbariums with restricted space or small herborization demand.

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
116 Downloads
Available from
Aug 13, 2014