Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 4.43). 08/2009; 112(1-3):14-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2009.04.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal lobe volume.
We compared three age-, sex-, and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3-T magnetic resonance imaging.
In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them.

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Available from: Erin A Hazlett, Aug 14, 2015
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    • "Increased activation of the bilateral STG has also been observed during the processing of deviant pure tones, together with a positive correlation between activation of right STG, right primary and associative auditory cortex (BA 41/42) and odd speech or thinking in SPD subjects (Dickey et al., 2008). Thus, abnormalities of the STG, which plays an essential role in language, may be an important endophenotype of schizophreniaspectrum disorders (Dickey et al., 2002a; Goldstein et al., 2009). In this context, the increased participation of the RH during information processing may be considered as "a form of neurodevelopmental compensation for early LH insult" (Lencz et al., 1995 p.307). "
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