Antibiotic Resistance of Gram Negatives isolates from loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the central Mediterranean Sea

Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, Polo Universitario SS Annunziata, 98167 Messina, Italy.
Marine Pollution Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.99). 06/2009; 58(9):1363-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.020
Source: PubMed


Previous studies on fish and marine mammals support the hypothesis that marine species harbor antibiotic resistance and therefore may serve as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistance genetic determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Gram negative strains isolated from loggerhead sea turtles (Carettacaretta). Oral and cloacal swabs from 19 live-stranded loggerhead sea turtles, with hooks fixed into the gut, were analyzed. The antimicrobial resistance of the isolates to 31 antibiotics was assessed using the disk-diffusion method. Conventional biochemical tests identified Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. Highest prevalences of resistance was detected to carbenicillin (100%), cephalothin (92.6%), oxytetracycline (81.3%) and amoxicillin (77.8%). The isolates showing resistance to the widest range of antibiotics were identified as Citrobacterfreundii, Proteusvulgaris, Providenciarettgeri and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. In this study, antibiotic resistant bacteria reflect marine contamination by polluted effluents and C.caretta is considered a bioindicator which can be used as a monitor for pollution.

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    • "Bull. (2013), ples (38%) (Foti et al., 2009). In that study, however, high levels of tetracycline and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistance (64.9% and 48%, respectively) were described in contrast to our samples. "
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    • "They have been identified as part of the normal human gut flora and the genomes of some strains have been sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project [5]. Additionally, Providencia have been associated with numerous animals worldwide, including isolation from penguin feces in German zoos [6], sea turtles in the Mediterranean [7], shark mouths in Brazil [8], entomopathogenic nematodes globally [9], and snakes from Vietnam [10]. Providencia have also been found in association with insects such as blowflies [11], stable flies [12], Mexican fruit flies [13], and house flies [14]. "
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