Berberine inhibits Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation on the surface of titanium alloy.
ABSTRACT Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) is a common cause of periprosthetic infection. Recently, we have discovered that berberine is bacteriostatic for S. epidermidis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of berberine on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation on the surface of titanium alloy, which is a popular material for orthopedic joint prostheses. Three strains of S. epidermidis (ATCC 35984, ATCC 12228, and SE 243) were used for in vitro experiment. Direct colony counting showed that berberine significantly inhibited S. epidermidis adhesion on the titanium alloy disk in 2 h at the concentration of 45 microg/mL. When examined with crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we found that higher concentrations (>30 microg/mL) of berberine effectively prevented the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on the surface of the titanium disk in 24 h. These findings suggest that berberine is a potential agent for the treatment of periprosthetic infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Manfred L Rotter[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To test the effects of several biocides [N-propanol, a commercially available propanol/ethanol/chlorhexidine mixture, polyvinylpyrolidone (povidone-iodine) and hydrogen peroxide] on established biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from patients with cardiac implant infections and catheter-related bacteraemia. Biofilms were grown in microtitre plates for 24 h, dyed and stained with Crystal Violet. The mean optical density (OD) and the OD ratio (ODr=OD of the treated biofilm/OD of the untreated biofilm) were used for quantification. Biofilms were incubated with 60% (v/v) N-propanol, the mixture of propanol/ethanol/chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide at three concentrations (0.5%, 3% and 5%, v/v) and povidone-iodine for 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. Unstained biofilms were sonicated and plated on Columbia agar for time-kill curves. S. epidermidis skin isolates from healthy volunteers were used as controls. Biofilm ODs of the clinical S. epidermidis isolates and the isolates from the healthy volunteers were significantly different (1.17+/-0.512 versus 0.559+/-0.095, respectively; mean+/-SD) (P<0.01). No viable S. epidermidis was detected in biofilms treated with the alcohols, N-propanol or the propanol/ethanol/chlorhexidine mixture. Incubation with povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide 3% and 5% led to a log reduction of the viable cells of >5 after incubation for 5 min, however, up to 10(3) viable cells were detected in four isolates after 30 min of incubation with povidone-iodine. S. epidermidis obtained from infected implants forms thicker biofilms than that of healthy volunteers. Hydrogen peroxide, at a concentration of 3% and 5%, and alcohols rapidly eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms, whereas povidone-iodine is less effective.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2007; 60(2):417-20. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The problem of prophylaxis in orthopedic implant surgery will become increasingly important and complex as the population ages and requires more arthroplasty procedures, and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria meanwhile also continues to rise. Energy spent preventing prosthetic joint infection is more effective than that expended in treating the infection of a prosthetic joint, once established. Preventive measures encompass a wide array of variables related to host response, wound environment, and microorganisms. Prophylaxis should address these areas in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. Antimicrobial prophylaxis remains the single most effective method of reducing the prevalence of infection after total joint arthroplasty. In the postoperative period, prophylaxis aims to protect the prosthetic joint against hematogenous seeding from oral, urologic, skin, or gastrointestinal sources. Currently, dental and urologic advisory statements provide recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for high-risk patients with total joint arthroplasty undergoing high-risk procedures. Close collaboration between the orthopedic surgeon, urologist, or dentist and the infectious disease specialist is crucial for providing recommendations regarding prophylaxis in special circumstances. In these particular circumstances, individual decisions should be made based on clinical judgment.Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 01/2006; 19(4):931-46. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peri-prosthetic infections are notoriously difficult to treat as the biomaterial implant is ideal for bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, resulting in decreased antibiotic sensitivity. Previously, we reported that vancomycin covalently attached to a Ti alloy surface (Vanc-Ti) could prevent bacterial colonization. Herein we examine the effect of this Vanc-Ti surface on Staphylococci epidermidis, a Gram-positive organism prevalent in orthopaedic infections. By direct colony counting and fluorescent visualization of live bacteria, S. epidermidis colonization was significantly inhibited on Vanc-Ti implants. In contrast, the gram-negative organism Escherichia coli readily colonized the Vanc-Ti rod, suggesting retention of antibiotic specificity. By histochemical and SEM analysis, Vanc-Ti prevented S. epidermidis biofilm formation, even in the presence of serum. Furthermore, when challenged multiple times with S. epidermidis, Vanc-Ti rods resisted bacterial colonization. Finally, when S. epidermidis was continuously cultured in the presence of Vanc-Ti, the bacteria maintained a Vanc sensitivity equivalent to the parent strain. These findings indicate that antibiotic derivatization of implants can result in a surface that can resist bacterial colonization. This technology holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infections.Biomaterials 10/2008; 29(35):4684-90. · 7.60 Impact Factor