Molecular characterization of a human cation-Cl- cotransporter (SLC12A8A, CCC9A) that promotes polyamine and amino acid transport.
ABSTRACT Cation-Cl- cotransporters (CCCs) belong to a large family of proteins that includes 9 isoforms, two of which have still not been ascribed a transport function (CCC8 and CCC9) while the others are all known to promote Cl(-)-coupled Na+ and/or K+ movement at the cell surface. The CCCs are also included in a larger family termed amino acid-polyamine-organocation carriers (APCs). In contrast to the CCCs, however, polyamine (PA) transporters have thus far been isolated from unicellular species exclusively and do not all belong to the APC family. In this work, we have found that a splice variant of CCC9 (CCC9a) promotes PA-amino acid transport at the surface of HEK-293 cells. We have also found that the influx of PAs in CCC9a-expressing cells is inhibited by pentamidine as well as furosemide, and that it increases further in the presence of specific amino acids but not of Na+, K+, or Cl-. Hence, a group of substrates that are directly transported by CCC9 and the molecular identity of a PA transport system in animal cells may have been uncovered for the first time. These findings are of special interest given that intracellular PAs play a key role in cell proliferation.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity. We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were altered in subjects with high zinc protoporphyrin blood levels. The results of our study defined specific changes in gene and protein expression in response to lead challenges and determined the injurious effects of exposures to lead on a cellular level. This information can be used for documenting the health effects of exposures to lead which will facilitate identifying and monitoring efficacious treatments for lead-related maladies.BMC Genomics 07/2012; 13:344. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Very limited molecular knowledge exists about the identity and protein components of the ubiquitous polyamine transporters found in animal cells. However, a number of reports have been published over the last 5 years on potential candidates for metazoan polyamine permeases. We review the available evidence on these putative polyamine permeases, as well as establish a useful "identikit picture" of the general polyamine transport system, based on its properties as found in a wide spectrum of mammalian cells. Any molecular candidate encoding a putative "general" polyamine permease should fit that provided portrait. The current models proposed for the mechanism of polyamine internalization in mammalian cells are also briefly reviewed.Amino Acids 08/2011; 42(2-3):711-23. · 3.25 Impact Factor