Isolation and characterization of surfactin produced by Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2.
ABSTRACT Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (BP-KJS-2) was used to produce a lipopeptide-type surfactin. To accomplish this, a surfactin-producing BP-KJS-2 was fermented by soybeans. The surfactin was then purified by a procedure including ethanol treatment and preparative chromatography. Next, the biochemical structure of the purified surfactin was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and high-resolution ESI Q-Tof mass spectrometry (Q-Tof MS). In addition, the masses of the four peaks were determined to be 1007, 1021, 1035, and 1049 m/z revealing that the compound was mixture with quasi-molecular ions. Taken together, these findings indicated that the lipopeptide had a cyclic structure and amino acid composition of Gln-Leu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu, and that the major lipopeptide product of BP-KJS-2 is the surfactin isoform. In addition, this lipopeptide showed strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria at the level of 0.05 mg/mL.
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ABSTRACT: Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus subti-lis and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. It has the ability to reduce surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m at a concentration as low as 0.005 %. The structure of surfactin consists of seven amino acids bonded to the carboxyl and hydrox-yl groups of a 14-carbon fatty acid. Surfactin possesses a number of biological activities such as the ability to lyse erythrocytes, inhibit clot formation, lyse bacterial spheroplasts and protoplasts, and inhibit cyclic 3 ' ,5-monophosphate diesterase. The high cost of produc-tion and low yields have limited its use in various commercial applications. Both sub-merged and solid-state fermentation have been investigated with the mutational approach to improve the productivity. In this review, current state of knowledge on biosynthesis of surfactin, its fermentative production, purification, analytical methods and biomedical appli-cations is presented.