Nonlinear optical contrast enhancement for optical coherence tomography

Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 02/2004; 12(2):331-41. DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.12.000331
Source: arXiv


We present a new interferometric technique for measuring Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) signals. Heterodyne detection is employed to increase the sensitivity in both CARS and SHG signal detection, which can also be extended to different coherent processes. The exploitation of the mentioned optical nonlinearities for molecular contrast enhancement in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented.

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Available from: Claudio Vinegoni, Mar 25, 2014
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    • "To overcome this, multiplex CARS [21], [22] probes multiple modes simultaneously by the use of picosecond pump and femtosecond Stokes pulses, but the nonresonant background distorts the vibrational spectra. A recent important method to reject the background was to take advantage of the coherent properties of CARS signals and perform interferometric detection [23]–[30]. In this scheme, the anti-Stokes pulses from the sample are mixed with pulses in the same frequency range from a local oscillator, resulting in phase-sensitive measurements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrational contrast imaging of the distribution of complex biological molecules requires the use of techniques that provide broadband spectra with sufficient resolution. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is currently limited in meeting these requirements due to the presence of a nonresonant background and its inability to target multiple resonances simultaneously. We present nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging (NIVI), a technique based on CARS that uses femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses to retrieve broadband vibrational spectra over 200 cm<sup>-1</sup> (full-width at half maximum). By chirping the pump and performing spectral interferometric detection, the anti-Stokes pulses are resolved in time. This phase-sensitive detection allows suppression of not only the nonresonant background, but also of the real part of the nonlinear susceptibility χ<sup>(3)</sup>, improving the spectral resolution and features to make them comparable to those acquired with spontaneous Raman microscopy, as shown for a material sample and mammary tissue.
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 09/2010; 16(4-16):824 - 832. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2035537 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, it is well suited for high-resolution imaging of tissue microstructures, as well as tissue functions based on the scattering (such as Doppler OCT [120]–[123]) or birefringence (such as polarization-sensitive OCT [124]–[128]). Different approaches have been pursued to enhance the scattering contrast through exogenous contrast agents [129]–[138], or exploit other contrast mechanisms including absorption [28], [139]–[143], fluorescence [38]–[40], second harmonics [112], [144], [145], and CARS [118], [119]. An alternative approach to obtain comprehensive information from tissue imaging is to combine OCT with other imaging modalities based on complementary contrast mechanisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) system for co-registered depth-resolved structural and molecular imaging. Experimental results using a mouse model with human breast cancer xenograft are presented.
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    • "The information content of OCT, however, is limited to linear scattering (structure) visualization and will require an expert to interpret data and make decisions. While efforts have been made towards extending OCT for molecular imaging of biological tissue [30] [31] [32] the gold standard for comparison has generally been H&E images. To simulate the forward problem, the usual approach is to model and validate on spheres suspended in a liquid [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Histologic information is often the ground truth against which imaging technology performance is measured. Typically, this information is limited, however, due to the need to excise tissue, stain it and have the tissue section manually reviewed. As a consequence, histologic models of actual tissues are difficult to acquire and are generally prohibitively expensive. Models and phantoms for imaging development, hence, have to be simple and reproducible for concordance between different groups developing the same imaging methods but may not reflect tissue structure. Here, we propose a route to histologic information that does not involve the use of human review nor does it require specialized dyes or stains. We combine mid-infrared Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with imaging to record data from tissue sections. Attendant numerical algorithms are used to convert the data to histologic information. Additionally, the biochemical nature of the recorded information can be used to generate contrast for other modalities. We propose that this histologic model and spectroscopic generation of contrast can serve as standard for testing and design aid for tomography and spectroscopy of tissues. We discuss here the biochemical and statistical issues involved in creating histologic models and demonstrate the use of the approach in generating optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of prostate tissue samples.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.810119 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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