Triple Antihypertensive Therapy With Amlodipine, Valsartan, and Hydrochlorothiazide A Randomized Clinical Trial

Sleep/Wake Disorders Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 08/2009; 54(1):32-9. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.131300
Source: PubMed


Many patients with hypertension require > or =3 agents to achieve target blood pressure (BP). The efficacy/safety of the dual combinations of valsartan (Val)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amlodipine (Aml)/Val in hypertension are well established. This randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy/safety of triple therapy with Aml/Val/HCTZ for moderate or severe hypertension (mean sitting systolic BP: > or =145 mm Hg; mean sitting diastolic BP: > or =100 mm Hg). The study included a single-blind, placebo run-in period, followed by double-blind treatment for 8 weeks; patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups titrated to Aml/Val/HCTZ 10/320/25 mg, Val/HCTZ 320/25 mg, Aml/Val 10/320 mg, or Aml/HCTZ 10/25 mg once daily. Dual-therapy recipients received half of the target doses of both agents for the first 2 weeks, titrating to target doses during week 3. Those on triple therapy received Val/HCTZ 160.0/12.5 mg during week 1, Aml/Val/HCTZ 5.0/160.0/12.5 mg during week 2, and target doses of all 3 of the agents during week 3. Of the 4285 patients enrolled, 2271 were randomly assigned to treatment, and 2060 completed the study. Triple therapy was significantly superior to all of the dual therapies in reducing mean sitting systolic BP and mean sitting diastolic BP from baseline to end point (all P<0.0001). Significantly more patients on triple therapy achieved overall BP control (<140/90 mm Hg; P<0.0001) and systolic and diastolic control (P< or =0.0002) compared with each dual therapy. Aml/Val/HCTZ was well tolerated. The benefits of triple therapy over dual therapy were observed regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, or baseline mean sitting systolic BP. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the efficacy/safety of treating moderate and severe hypertension with Aml/Val/HCTZ 10/320/25 mg.

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    • "The use of combination therapy having complementary mechanisms of action is more effective than single agents in achieving optimal BP control [8, 26]. A SPC of Val and Aml has been well tolerated regardless of age, sex, race, or ethnicity [27, 28]. The safety and efficacy of this combination have also been demonstrated in RCTs of Chinese individuals [20, 21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Single-pill combination (SPC) therapy of two drugs is recommended by international guidelines, including the Chinese guidelines (2010), for the treatment of hypertension in high-risk patients who require marked blood pressure (BP) reductions. Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of valsartan/amlodipine (Val/Aml) SPC are scarce. The present study is the first observational study in China to evaluate the efficacy (primary endpoint) and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC in Chinese patients with hypertension whose BP was not adequately controlled by monotherapy in a real-world setting. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, open-label, post-marketing observational study included 11,422 Chinese adults (≥18 years) with essential hypertension from 238 sites of 29 provinces who were prescribed once-daily Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC. Patients were treated for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable of the study included changes in mean sitting systolic BP (MSSBP) and mean diastolic BP (MSDBP) from baseline to week 8 (end point). The secondary efficacy variable of the study included BP control rate and response rate at week 4 and 8. Safety assessments included recording and measurement of all adverse events (AEs) and vital signs in the safety population. Results: A significant reduction of 27.1 mmHg in MSSBP (159.6 vs. 132.5 mmHg; P < 0.0001) and 15.2 mmHg in MSDBP (95.6 vs. 80.4 mmHg; P < 0.0001) from baseline was observed at week 8. The BP-lowering efficacy of Val/Aml SPC was independent of age and comorbidities. BP control of <140/90 mmHg was achieved in 76.8% (n = 8,692) of the patients. The most frequently reported AEs were dizziness (0.2%), headache (0.2%), upper respiratory tract infection (0.2%), and edema (0.2%). Only three serious AEs were reported and they were not drug-related. Conclusion: This is the first evidence-based real-world data in Chinese hypertensive patients which demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC.
    Advances in Therapy 07/2014; 31(7). DOI:10.1007/s12325-014-0132-x · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    • "In the BP-CRUSH trial [26], a treatment algorithm in which patients were titrated to triple therapy with amlodipine, olmesartan, and hydrochlorothiazide, 90% of patients achieved BP control. In another trial [27], a 3-drug combination of valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and amlodipine resulted in Table 1 Hints of nonadherence to pharmacologic therapy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although the blood pressure (BP) of many patients can be controlled using standard combinations, treatment of hypertension frequently represents a clinical challenge to the primary care physician. This article will review best practices for managing patients with easy- and difficult-to-treat hypertension, including preferred antihypertensive combinations, optimizing adherence and persistence, recognizing white-coat hypertension, and intensifying therapy for treatment-resistant patients. Each physician must decide based on his or her own level of experience at what point a patient becomes too challenging and would benefit from referral to a hypertension specialist for more intensive management and to complete the exclusion of secondary forms of arterial hypertension. With intensive pharmacotherapy, many patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension can achieve BP control. If it fails, interventional strategies (e.g., renal denervation) are a valid option to get BP controlled.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2014; 172(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.12.125 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    • "These drug classes have complementary mechanisms of action and, when used concomitantly, the magnitude of BP lowering in these non-white populations is generally comparable with that seen in non-Hispanic white patients. Although the clinical trial evidence is not examined in this review, if necessary, a diuretic can be added to the amlodipine/valsartan combination to further reduce BP, without compromising safety and tolerability [64, 65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension, with particular focus on non-white populations including blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asians. Hypertension and its related morbidity and mortality affect a disproportionate number of black patients compared with white patients. Blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asians have poor rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. Given the high prevalence of comorbidities (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) in these populations, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are a good choice for foundation therapy. This review also discusses the importance of adherence and persistence with antihypertensive medication, which remain suboptimal in these non-white populations. Evidence suggests improvement with the use of single-pill combination therapy. Lastly, clinical trial data on the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the combination of a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin receptor blocker, a widely utilized combination, in non-white populations are presented. PubMed was searched using the title/abstract key words (amlodipine AND valsartan AND [hypertension OR hypertensive] AND [black(s) OR African American(s) OR Hispanic(s) OR Latino(s) OR Mexican(s) OR Asian(s)]). In total, eight studies in patients with stage 1 or 2 hypertension were identified (n = 1,111 black, n = 389 Hispanic/Latino, and n = 3,094 Asian). Results showed that treatment with the combination of amlodipine plus valsartan is a reasonable choice for initial therapy or in patients who fail to respond to monotherapy. These drug classes have complementary mechanisms of action and, when used concomitantly, the magnitude of blood pressure lowering in these non-white populations is generally comparable with that seen in non-Hispanic white patients.
    American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 06/2013; 13(5). DOI:10.1007/s40256-013-0033-4 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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