The calcimimetic AMG 641 abrogates parathyroid hyperplasia, bone and vascular calcification abnormalities in uremic rats.
ABSTRACT Calcimimetics and vitamin D sterols reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving dialysis, a disease state associated with parathyroid hyperplasia, vascular calcification, bone disease, and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the research calcimimetic AMG 641 (Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA) or calcitriol (Sigma Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO) on vascular calcification in a rodent model of progressive uremia with accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary adenine. Treatment effects on parathyroid gland hyperplasia and bone loss were also investigated. Rats were treated daily with vehicle, calcitriol (10 ng), AMG 641 (3 mg/kg), or no treatment during the 4 week period the animals were fed adenine. The uremia-induced increases in serum PTH levels were significantly attenuated by both AMG 641 (>90%) and calcitriol (approximately 50%). AMG 641 significantly reduced calcium-phosphorus product (CaxP) and significantly attenuated the development of both parathyroid hyperplasia and vascular calcification. In addition, AMG 641 prevented the defects in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and bone mineralization, as well as increases in trabecular spacing in this rodent model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcitriol (10 ng/rat) decreased osteoid surface/bone surface, but had no effects on other bone parameters, or parathyroid hyperplasia (likely due to the lower PTH suppressive effect of calcitriol at the dose used in this study). However, this dose of calcitriol significantly exacerbated vascular calcification. These results suggest that calcimimetics can reduce the development of vascular calcification, parathyroid hyperplasia and bone abnormalities associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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ABSTRACT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients. Patients were on maintenance hemodialysis with insufficiently controlled SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone [PTH] >180 pg/mL) by conventional therapies. All subjects were initially administered 25 mg cinacalcet daily, with concomitant use of calcitriol analogs. Abdominal aortic calcification was annually evaluated by calculating aortic calcification area index (ACAI) using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), from 12 months before to 36 months after the initiation of cinacalcet therapy. Twenty-three patients were analyzed in this study. The mean age was 59.0±8.7 years, 34.8% were women, and the mean dialysis duration was 163.0±76.0 months. After administration of cinacalcet, serum levels of intact PTH, phosphorus, and calcium significantly decreased, and mean Ca × P values significantly decreased from 67.4±7.9 mg(2)/dL(2) to 52±7.7 mg(2)/dL(2). Although the ACAI value did not decrease during the observation period, the increase in ACAI between 24 months and 36 months after cinacalcet administration was significantly suppressed. Long-term administration of cinacalcet was associated with reduced progression of abdominal aortic calcification, and achieving appropriate calcium and phosphorus levels may reduce the rates of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on hemodialysis.International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 01/2013; 7:25-33.
Article: Calcimimetics and outcomes in CKD[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the past decade, several experimental studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of calcimimetics on the progression of vascular calcification in animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in keeping with the expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in vascular tissue. In addition, calcimimetics were also found to prevent the arterial remodeling caused by CKD and to slow the progression of atherosclerosis in uremic rats and mice, respectively. The mode of action of these CaR modulators could be both via a better control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and direct effects on the vessel wall. Two main clinical trials, ADVANCE and EVOLVE, recently evaluated in patients with CKD stage 5D the effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on the progression of vascular calcification and hard cardiovascular outcomes, respectively. Both trials missed their respective primary end point by intent-to-treat analysis although by other prespecified analyses, including adjustment for baseline characteristics, there was strong suggestive evidence in favor of reductions in risk, in agreement with numerous experimental studies. Further clinical trials are needed to settle this issue definitively.Kidney International Supplements. 12/2013; 3(5):431-435.
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ABSTRACT: Umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCM-MSCs) present a wide range of potential therapeutical applications. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates physiological and pathological processes. We investigated, in a large animal model, the involvement of CaSR in triggering osteogenic and neurogenic differentiation of two size-sieved UCM-MSC lines, by using AMG641, a novel potent research calcimimetic acting as CaSR agonist.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e111533. · 3.53 Impact Factor