The calcimimetic AMG 641 abrogates parathyroid hyperplasia, bone and vascular calcification abnormalities in uremic rats
ABSTRACT Calcimimetics and vitamin D sterols reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving dialysis, a disease state associated with parathyroid hyperplasia, vascular calcification, bone disease, and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the research calcimimetic AMG 641 (Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA) or calcitriol (Sigma Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO) on vascular calcification in a rodent model of progressive uremia with accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary adenine. Treatment effects on parathyroid gland hyperplasia and bone loss were also investigated. Rats were treated daily with vehicle, calcitriol (10 ng), AMG 641 (3 mg/kg), or no treatment during the 4 week period the animals were fed adenine. The uremia-induced increases in serum PTH levels were significantly attenuated by both AMG 641 (>90%) and calcitriol (approximately 50%). AMG 641 significantly reduced calcium-phosphorus product (CaxP) and significantly attenuated the development of both parathyroid hyperplasia and vascular calcification. In addition, AMG 641 prevented the defects in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and bone mineralization, as well as increases in trabecular spacing in this rodent model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcitriol (10 ng/rat) decreased osteoid surface/bone surface, but had no effects on other bone parameters, or parathyroid hyperplasia (likely due to the lower PTH suppressive effect of calcitriol at the dose used in this study). However, this dose of calcitriol significantly exacerbated vascular calcification. These results suggest that calcimimetics can reduce the development of vascular calcification, parathyroid hyperplasia and bone abnormalities associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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ABSTRACT: Umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCM-MSCs) present a wide range of potential therapeutical applications. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates physiological and pathological processes. We investigated, in a large animal model, the involvement of CaSR in triggering osteogenic and neurogenic differentiation of two size-sieved UCM-MSC lines, by using AMG641, a novel potent research calcimimetic acting as CaSR agonist.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111533 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is an important complication of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cinacalcet, an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed in parathyroid glands, is the only calcimimetic approved to treat SHPT in patients on dialysis. By enhancing CaSR sensitivity for plasma extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)0), cinacalcet reduces serum parathyroid hormone, Ca(2+)0, and serum inorganic phosphorous concentrations, allowing better control of SHPT and CKD-mineral and bone disorders. Of interest, the CaSR also is expressed in a variety of tissues where its activation regulates diverse cellular processes, including secretion, apoptosis, and proliferation. Thus, the existence of potential off-target effects of cinacalcet cannot be neglected. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the potential role(s) of the CaSR expressed in various tissues in CKD-related disorders, independently of parathyroid hormone control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Seminars in Nephrology 11/2014; 34(6):648-659. DOI:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.10.001 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperparathyroidism develops in chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decreased calcemic response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) contributes to the development of hyperparathyroidism and is presumed due to reduced calcium efflux from bone. Contributing factors to the decreased calcemic response to PTH in CKD include: 1) hyperphosphatemia; 2) decreased serum calcitriol; 3) downregulation of the PTH1 receptor; 4) large, truncated amino-terminal PTH fragments acting at the carboxy-PTH receptor; and 5) uremic toxins. Also, prolonged high dose calcitriol administration may decrease the exchangeable pool of bone calcium independent of PTH. The goal of the review is to provide a better understanding of how the above cited factors affect calcium efflux from bone in CKD. In conclusion, much remains to be learned about the role of bone in the regulation of serum calcium.Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 09/2014; 34(5):658-669. DOI:10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2014.Jun.12379 · 1.44 Impact Factor