Therapeutic window of selective profound cerebral hypothermia for resuscitation of severe cerebral ischemia in primates.
ABSTRACT It is well recognized that brain death starts to occur just 4-6 min after cardiac arrest, and few attempts at resuscitation succeed after 10 min of severe cerebral ischemia and anoxia. We sought to determine the therapeutic window of selective cerebral profound hypothermia of primates following severe cerebral ischemia in primates. Fourteen rhesus monkeys with severe cerebral ischemia were divided into four groups: normothermia (n = 3); profound hypothermia I (n = 4), with cooling initiated 10 min after ischemia; profound hypothermia II (n = 4), with cooling initiated 15 min after ischemia; and profound hypothermia III (n = 3), with cooling initiated 20 min after ischemia. Severe cerebral ischemia was induced by clamping both the internal and external carotid arteries, as well as the internal and external jugular veins. Profound cerebral hypothermia (15.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees C) was achieved and maintained for 60 min, and the animals were then re-warmed gradually. All four animals in hypothermia group I survived without any neurological deficits. Only 1 animal survived and 3 animals died in hypothermia group II. All 4 animals died in both hypothermia group III and the normothermia group. Neurological functions were normal in all surviving animals, and MRI scans showed no cerebral infarction in these animals. Microscopic examination showed no injured neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the surviving animals, and showed that the heart, lung, liver, and kidneys were normal in these animals. Our data indicate that post-ischemic profound cerebral hypothermia provided significant cerebral protection with no systemic complications, and that the effective therapeutic window is more than 10 min, but less than 15 min, after severe cerebral ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in aneurysm surgery and for repair of congenital heart defects, there is continued concern about possible adverse cerebral sequelae. The search for ways to improve implementation of HCA has inspired retrospective clinical studies to try to identify risk factors for cerebral injury, and clinical and laboratory investigations to explore the physiology of HCA. At present, risk factors associated with less favorable cerebral outcome after HCA include: prolonged duration of HCA (usually greater than 60 min); advanced patient age; rapid cooling (less than 20 min); hyperglycemia either before HCA or during reperfusion; preoperative cyanosis or lack of adequate hemodilution; evidence of increased oxygen extraction before HCA or during reperfusion; and delayed reappearance of electroencephalogram (EEG) or marked EEG abnormality. Strategies advocated to increase safety of HCA include: pretreatment with barbiturates and steroids; use of alpha-stat pH regulation during cooling and rewarming; intraoperative monitoring of EEG; slow and adequate cooling, including packing of the head in ice; monitoring of jugular venous oxygen content; hemodilution; and avoidance of hyperglycemia. Current investigation focuses on delineating the relationship of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to cerebral oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism during cooling, HCA, rewarming, and later recovery, and identifying changes in acute intraoperative parameters, including the presence of intracerebral enzymes in cerebral spinal fluid, with cerebral outcome as assessed by neurological evaluation, quantitative EEG, and postmortem histology. Clinically, intraoperative monitoring of EEG and measurement of CBF by tracer washout or Doppler flows are contributing to better understanding of the physiology of HCA, and in the laboratory, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has provided valuable insights into the kinetics of intracerebral energy metabolism. Promising strategies for the future include investigation of other pharmacological agents to increase cerebral protection, and use of "cerebroplegia" or intermittent perfusion between intervals of HCA to improve cerebral tolerance for longer durations of HCA.Journal of Cardiac Surgery 07/1992; 7(2):134-55. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypothermia has been demonstrated to protect the brain from ischemic or traumatic injury. Previous efforts to induce cerebral hypothermia have relied on techniques requiring total body cooling that have resulted in serious cardiovascular derangements. A technique to selectively cool the brain, without systemic hypothermia, may have applications for the treatment of neurological disease. After induction of general anesthesia in 12 baboons, the right common carotid artery and ipsilateral femoral artery were each occlusively cannulated and joined to a centrifugal pump. In a closed-circuit system, blood was continually withdrawn from the femoral artery, cooled by water bath, and infused through the common carotid artery with its external branches occluded. Pump flow was varied so that right carotid pressure approximated systemic blood pressure. In six animals, perfusate was cooled to decrease right cerebral temperature to < 19 degrees C for 30 minutes. In six animals, right cerebral temperature was decreased to < 25 degrees C for 3 hours. In those six animals, 133Xe was injected into the right carotid artery before, during, and after hypothermia. Peak radioactivity and washout curves were recorded from bilateral cranial detectors. Systemic warming was accomplished by convective air and warm water blankets. Esophageal, rectal, and bilateral cerebral temperatures were continuously recorded. In animals cooled to < 19 degrees C, right cerebral temperature decreased from 34 degrees C to 18.5 +/- 1.1 degrees C (mean +/- standard deviation), P < 0.01, in 26 +/- 13 minutes. Simultaneously, left cerebral temperature decreased to 20.7 +/- 1.6 degrees C. During 30 minutes of stable cerebral hypothermia, esophageal temperature decreased from 35.1 +/- 2.3 degrees C to 34.2 +/- 2.2 degrees C, P < 0.05. In animals cooled to < 25 degrees C, right cerebral temperature decreased from 34 degrees C to 24.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C in 12.0 +/- 6.0 minutes, P < 0.01. Simultaneously, left cerebral temperature decreased to 26.3 +/- 4.8 degrees C. After 3 hours of stable cerebral hypothermia, esophageal temperature was 34.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C, P < 0.05. Right hemispheric cerebral blood flow decreased during hypothermia (26 +/- 16 ml/min/100 g) compared to values before and after hypothermia (63 +/- 29 and 51 +/- 34 ml/min/100 g, respectively; P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypothermic perfusion resulted in a proportionally increased radioactivity peak detected in the left cerebral hemisphere after right carotid artery injection of 133Xe (0.8 +/- 0.2:1, left:right) compared to normothermia before and after hypothermia (0.3 +/- 2 and 0.3 +/- 1, respectively; P < 0.05). Normal heart rhythm, systemic arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas values were preserved during hypothermia in all animals. Bilateral cerebral deep or moderate hypothermia can be induced by selective perfusion of a single internal carotid artery, with minimal systemic cooling and without cardiovascular instability. This global brain hypothermia results from profoundly altered collateral cerebral circulation during artificial hypothermic perfusion. This technique may have clinical applications for neurosurgery, stroke, or traumatic brain injury.Neurosurgery 10/1996; 39(3):577-81; discussion 581-2. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors describe their experience with a baboon model of reversible cerebral ischemia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was achieved by external compression with an implantable, inflatable balloon cuff in awake, unanesthetized baboons. Selective cerebral angiography confirmed consistent, reliable occlusion. Computed tomography demonstrated early density changes after ischemia, which were reversible with reperfusion. Neurological evaluation demonstrated a "recruitment response" of increasingly persistent deficit with repeated occlusion. Permanent deficits were noted after extensive angiography during periods of occlusion. This was accompanied by the dropout of small vessels in the middle cerebral artery distribution. The results of pathological examinations were consistent with the clinical examinations. No gross or microscopic changes were noted after repeated occlusions that caused deficits like those of transient ischemic attacks. Consistent infarctions were noted in animals with permanent deficits after permanent occlusion or after repeated occlusion and extensive angiography.Neurosurgery 10/1980; 7(3):257-61. · 2.53 Impact Factor