Article

Stress, memory and the amygdala.

Department of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.38). 07/2009; 10(6):423-33. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2651
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of amygdala structure and function - from cellular mechanisms to their behavioural consequences. The unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala, in association with changes in other brain regions, could have long-term consequences for cognitive performance and pathological anxiety exhibited in people with affective disorders.

65 Followers
 · 
988 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicated that serotonergic receptor can modulate of acute stress' and corticosterone effects on behavior processes especially learning and memory. The aim of this study determines the role of serotonergic receptors (5HT6) on effects of acute stress and corticosterone on fear-based memory retrieval and extinction in passive avoidance task. Male adult mice were trained and tested in an inhibitory avoidance task (footshock, 1mA 3s). For retrieval assessment, 30 min before corticosterone injection or application acute stress and one hour before retention test (48 hr after training) the animals received SC203575 as a 5HT6 receptor agonist or SB271046 as an antagonist of 5HT6 receptors. For assessment memory extinction, one hour before memory reactivation (48 hr after training) animal received the above drugs and then received corticosterone or acute stress. Memory retention test was done 2, 5, 7 and 9 days after memory reactivation. The results show that injection of corticosterone or application of acute stress before memory riactivation impaired memory retrieval and facilitated extinction of memory in subsequent tests. Pre-treatment with serotonergic receptors (5HT6) agonist and antagonist inhibited the effects of corticosterone or acute stress on memory retrieval and extinction, respectively. These findings indicate that the effects of glucocorticoids or acute stress on memory retrieval and extinction modulated at least, in part, by 5HT6 receptors.
    Koomesh 04/2015; 15(3):454-461.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment- related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal- centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated dur- ing the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on – and interacts with – biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cog- nitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, socio- logical, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emo- tions and their neural correlates.
    Physics of Life Reviews 01/2015; · 9.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment-related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal-centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated during the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on - and interacts with - biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cognitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, sociological, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emotions and their neural correlates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Physics of Life Reviews 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.plrev.2015.03.001 · 9.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
2,972 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014