Stress, memory and amygdala

Department of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 07/2009; 10(6):423-33. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2651
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of amygdala structure and function - from cellular mechanisms to their behavioural consequences. The unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala, in association with changes in other brain regions, could have long-term consequences for cognitive performance and pathological anxiety exhibited in people with affective disorders.

Download full-text


Available from: Benno Roozendaal, Sep 28, 2015
994 Reads
    • "Interindividual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity (Rohleder et al., 2010) could for example underlie the missing associations. Moreover, the two stress systems (SNS and HPA) might interact at multiple levels in a complex nonlinear manner (Roozendaal et al., 2009). Last but not least effects mediated via other stress-sensitive neurotransmitter systems (e.g., serotonin, oxytocin or CRH) have to be considered as well (Sandi & Haller, 2015; Taylor et al., 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/10253890.2015.1078787 · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "osen et al . , 2008b ) . However , another study did not find sensitization to TMT - induced freezing during chronic exposure to high levels of corticosterone ( Rosen et al . , 2008a ) . TMT induces corticosterone secretion ( Day et al . , 2004 ) , which is known to enhance anxious behavior and fear conditioned freezing ( Schulkin et al . , 2005 ; Roozendaal et al . , 2009 ) , so it is difficult to reconcile the increase in prolonged sensitization following TMT on startle and the elevated - plus maze , and the lack of an effect on TMT - induced freezing with chronic corticosterone . Possibly , increased corticosterone associated with TMT needs an environmental context to produce long lasting anxiogenic ef"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the last several years, the importance of understanding what innate threat and fear is, in addition to learning of threat and fear, has become evident. Odors from predators are ecologically relevant stimuli used by prey animals as warnings for the presence of danger. Of importance, these odors are not necessarily noxious or painful, but they have innate threat-like properties. This review summarizes the progress made on the behavioral and neuroanatomical fundamentals of innate fear of the predator odor, 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces. TMT is one of several single molecule components of predator odors that have been isolated in the last several years. Isolation of these single molecules has allowed for rapid advances in delineating the behavioral constraints and selective neuroanatomical pathways of predator odor induced fear. In naïve mice and rats, TMT induces a number of fear and defensive behaviors, including robust freezing, indicating it is an innate threat stimulus. However, there are a number of behavioral constraints that we do not yet understand. Similarly, while some of the early olfactory sensory pathways for TMT-induced fear are being delineated, the pathways from olfactory systems to emotional and motor output regions are less well understood. This review will focus on what we know and what we still need to learn about the behavior and neuroanatomy of TMT-induced fear.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 08/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00292 · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In particular, consisting with our hypothesis, this assessment confirm the influence of visual stimulation towards movies with emotive contents on anxiety and memory performance. This data are coherent with an ample research to suggest that emotional arousal and the physiological responses that can accompany it (e.g., increase in glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) facilitate encoding and memory consolidation processes by the release of hormones in the brainstem and baso-lateral amygdala (Roozendaal et al., 2009). Hippocampal connections with the amygdala are thought to mediate this memory enhancement (Roozendaal et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Literacy: Many studies have been showing that anxious individuals display attention biases including preferential engagement, difficulty in disengagement, or attention avoidance. Research in patients suggests that pathological anxiety may specifically impair spatial short-term and long-term episodic memory. Recently, many authors have emphasized the role of aversive stimulation on attention, working memory and anxiety. Purpose: The present study investigated the influence of anxiety on memory and attention, to contribute to our understanding of the anxiety effects on cognitive function. Methods: 130 students were included in this study (57 male and 73 female). Procedure: Each subject completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). After this measure, only 41 participants with the highest (n=21) and the lowest (n=20) levels of anxiety complete the Trail Making Test A-B, Attentive Matrices Test, Babcock Story Recall Test and Short-Term Visual Memory Test. Results: Less anxious participants showed best memory capacity and less attention biases than more anxious participants.
Show more