Peroral Dual Scope for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) Gastrotomy Closure

Department of Surgery, IRCAD/EITS, Strasbourg, France.
Surgical Innovation (Impact Factor: 1.34). 07/2009; 16(2):97-103. DOI: 10.1177/1553350609337309
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although transgastric intraperitoneal surgery is feasible both in experimental models and humans, secure gastrotomy closure remains challenging. As there is still no method that is simple, reliable, inexpensive, and effective, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a novel endoscopic approach to this issue that intends to ensure secure healing by obtaining full thickness gastric wall apposition without requiring specialized instrumentation.
Six pigs underwent general anesthesia followed by peritoneoscopy through a 12-mm gastrotomy by a double-channel endoscope. Gastrotomy closure was performed by our innovative technique. In short, this involves the insertion of a second single-channel gastroscope alongside the NOTES gastroscope. Both scopes are then worked in tandem within the stomach by separate operators using conventional endoscopic graspers and an endoclip device. The first animal was used to ascertain feasibility and standardize the technical steps, whereas the other five were survived. Postoperative follow-up then included endoscopy 1 week later and repeat endoscopy, laparoscopy, and necropsy on day 14.
All closures were immediately successful. Postoperatively, each animal demonstrated appropriate weight gain and behavioral pattern without overt postoperative complication. Necropsy showed normal healing at the gastrotomy site although there were signs of minor peritoneal irritation and infection in 2 pigs.
This transoral dual-scope clipping method of gastrotomy closure after NOTES, as well as the general concept of employing 2 separate instruments at the same time perorally, is proven technically feasible, safe, and effective in this model.

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    ABSTRACT: Several working groups have already demonstrated the feasibility of transgastric surgery procedures using flexible endoscopes. However, technical limitations in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) (e.g., exposure, retraction, insufflations, and triangulation) currently still require the use of at least one external instrument. Therefore, "pure NOTES" transgastric cholecystectomy has not yet been described. The authors successfully performed "pure NOTES" transgastric cholecystectomy using a transoral dual-scope technique (similar to the approach the authors previously reported for gastric closure) that allows completion of the procedure by pure NOTES without an external instrument. With the subject under general anesthesia, a double-channel gastroscope (Storz®, Tuttlingen, Germany) passed by mouth entered the peritoneum through the distal anterior gastric wall. The most ideal site for a second gastric exit was then selected for another single-channel scope. With the gallbladder retracted by the assistant operating the double-channel scope, retrograde cholecystectomy was performed by the primary surgeon using the single-channel scope. Four animals were killed immediately to study the quality of the operative dissection, whereas the other four pigs were kept alive. The gastrotomy was closed using a 27- to 30-mm cardiac septal occluder (Occlutech®, GmbH, Jena, Germany) according to a previously described method. The postoperative follow-up assessment of these animals included laparoscopy and necropsy 2 weeks later. All the cholecystectomies were immediately successful without any intraoperative complication. Scope withdrawal caused no injuries to the esophagus or pharynx. Although no overt postoperative complication was evident, two surviving pigs had signs of minor peritoneal infection. This study investigated "pure NOTES" transgastric cholecystectomy using tentative experimentation to overcome the "retraction" and "triangulation" issues and to realize a "pure NOTES" operation. The use of two endoscopes with selected differentiation of their gastric placements compensated for the lack of triangulation and retraction.
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