Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.

The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Journal of Health Communication (Impact Factor: 1.61). 07/2009; 14(4):315-30. DOI: 10.1080/10810730902872234
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes.


Available from: Doug Evans, Sep 18, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This aim of this thesis is to contribute to the debate about the best approach to engage citizens with sustainable behaviour. It is generally agreed that „bottom-up‟ approaches, where individuals are actively involved, are more effective than „top-down‟ authority-led projects where they have a more passive role. There is, however, a dearth of evidence from comparative evaluations. This thesis examines six distinct communication activities aimed at encouraging individuals to adopt more sustainable behaviours. Each used a different approach, some participative and others more top-down informational. Two questionnaires were used to gather data. The first was conducted at the time of the activity; the second between four and five weeks later and included questions about behaviour change. Variables from Petty and Cacioppo‟s Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), such as perceptions about a message and its source, and variables which Ajzen‟s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposes as being key to behaviour change, such as subjective norms and attitudes, were used to see if these identified any difference in outcome. Findings indicate support for the added value of a bottom-up approach compared to other mechanisms and identify that this may be partly explained by the extent to which such activities offer a more supportive environment for behaviour change to take place. The measures used in this study may be useful to others seeking to evaluate behaviour change communication campaigns or those comparing different communicative approaches. Full text available here:
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Awareness campaigns, education and training programmes, label schemes and smart metering are all initiatives based on the principle that more and better information will encourage consumers to use less energy. Initiatives of this type can realise efficiency savings of up to 30%, and are likely to remain politically popular while preferred by the public to legislation or fines. While widespread, such programmes can have mixed performance, with savings often not reaching potential. This article investigates whether existing theoretical models can usefully be combined for evaluations of such message-oriented programmes. To do this it examines relationships between the variables of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using empirical data from participants exposed to energy behaviour change projects. Analysis revealed that when used together, the theories may offer insight into the impact of messaging. While a single exploratory study can only describe what has occurred, it offers initial evidence to advocate further analysis of the potential of the combined framework. The author offers an illustration of how the framework might be utilised by other schemes by example of its application to a major EU project to save energy in Europe’s public buildings.
    Energy Policy 11/2014; 74:300–310. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.08.025 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A compelling communication tool that can potentially impact health-related outcomes and indicators across numerous health problems among a diversity of audiences is the health communication campaign. The purpose of the current article is to discuss trends in the research and practice of health communication campaigns. First, we discuss the issue of campaign effects and discuss a framework that encompasses key principles of effective campaigns. Next, we discuss four trends in health communication campaigns: (a) the increased application of marketing principles in campaigns; (b) the greater use of rigorous outcome evaluation designs in campaign research; (c) the increased use of cost effectiveness analysis in campaigns; and (d) the increased use of new media technologies in campaigns. Finally, we conclude the article with thoughts about the future of health communication campaign research and practice in relation to these trends.
    Sociology Compass 06/2011; 5(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2011.00379.x