To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the budding phase transition, 4,711 Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid nonessential gene deletion mutants were screened with the image processing program CalMorph, and 35 mutants with a round bud and 173 mutants with an elongated bud were statistically identified. We classified round and elongated bud mutants based on factors thought to affect the duration of the apical bud growth phase. Two round bud mutants (arc18 and sac6) were found to be defective in apical actin patch localization. Several elongated bud mutants demonstrated a delay of cell cycle progression at the apical growth phase, suggesting that these mutants have a defect in the control of cell cycle progression.
"In S. cerevisiae, the growth rate of the deletion mutant is slow, and the SPT20 mutant displays an elongated and irregularly bud morphology instead of the normal round morphology of wild-type cells , . Although both fungi display morphological defects they differ in the rate of growth. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is a ubiquitous fungus, which can cause very serious and sometimes life-threatening infections in susceptible patients. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to screen a library of C. albicans mutants for decreased virulence and identified SPT20 as important for virulence. The transcription co-activator SPT20 was identified originally as a suppressor of Ty and solo δ insertion mutations, which can cause transcription defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is resistant to the toxicity caused by overexpression of GAL4-VP16. We constructed a C. albicans spt20Δ/Δ mutant and found the spt20Δ/Δ strain was significantly less virulent than the wild-type strain SC5314 in C. elegans (p < 0.0001), Galleria mellonella (p < 0.01) and mice (p < 0.001). Morphologically, spt20Δ/Δ mutant cells demonstrated a "snow-flake" shape and clustered together; prolonged culture times resulted in increased size of the cluster. The clustered morphology was associated with defects in nuclei distribution, as the nuclei were not observed in many cellular compartments. In addition, the C. albicans spt20Δ/Δ mutant resulted in defects in hyphae and biofilm formation (compared to the wild-type strain, p < 0.05), and sensitivity to cell wall and osmotic stressors, and to antifungal agents. Thus our study demonstrated a role of C. albicans SPT20 in overall morphology and distribution of nuclear material, which may cause the defects in filamentation and biofilm formation directly when this gene is deleted.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94468. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094468 · 3.23 Impact Factor
") and their mutants tend to have phenotypic defects that are detectable in standard growth conditions (e.g., elongated buds, flocculated colonies , aberrant cell wall involving morphologies and fitness defects) (Martin et al. 1996; Edgington et al. 1999; Asano et al. 2006; Breslow et al. 2008; Watanabe et al. 2009), reflecting their requirement for normal cell cycle progression. Consistent with these observations, the hub kinases were also significantly enriched for interactions with genes involved in cell cycle progression (11-fold, P < 10 À4 ) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combinatorial genetic perturbation strategy was applied to interrogate the yeast kinome on a genome-wide scale. We assessed the global effects of gene overexpression or gene deletion to map an integrated genetic interaction network of synthetic dosage lethal (SDL) and loss-of-function genetic interactions (GIs) for 92 kinases, producing a meta-network of 8700 GIs enriched for pathways known to be regulated by cognate kinases. Kinases most sensitive to dosage perturbations had constitutive cell cycle or cell polarity functions under standard growth conditions. Condition-specific screens confirmed that the spectrum of kinase dosage interactions can be expanded substantially in activating conditions. An integrated network composed of systematic SDL, negative and positive loss-of-function GIs, and literature-curated kinase-substrate interactions revealed kinase-dependent regulatory motifs predictive of novel gene-specific phenotypes. Our study provides a valuable resource to unravel novel functional relationships and pathways regulated by kinases and outlines a general strategy for deciphering mutant phenotypes from large-scale GI networks.
Genome Research 02/2012; 22(4):791-801. DOI:10.1101/gr.129213.111 · 14.63 Impact Factor
"reported an abnormal cell morphology in rpl27a, rpl2b, rps12 mutants (Watanabe et al., 2009), whereas others provided evidences of an altered cell shape after mutations in rpl27a (Nathan and Lindquist, 1995), rpl3 (Rosado et al., 2007), and rps7a (Ni and Snyder, 2001). Mutations in rps7a were also proven to induce alteration of cell morphology by Sopko and co-workers (Sopko et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, besides being an eukaryotic cell model, plays a fundamental role in the production of fermented foods. In the winemaking industry, yeast cell walls may be involved in numerous processes and contribute substantially to the final chemical and sensorial profiles of wines. Nonetheless, apart from mannoproteins, little is known on the protein components of the yeast cell wall and their changes during the fermentation of must into wine. In this work, we performed a dynamic analysis of the cell surface proteome (surfome) of an autochthonous wine yeast strain (previously selected as a wine fermentation starter) by shaving intact cells with trypsin and identifying tryptic peptides by means of nLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS. Out of the 42 identified proteins, 16 and 14 were found to be specifically expressed in wine yeast surfome at the beginning and at the end of fermentation, respectively. The molecular functions of these specifically expressed proteins might help in explaining their roles in the cell wall as a response to the alcoholic fermentation-related stresses. Additionally, we provided the identification of 20 new potential cell wall related proteins. Globally, our results might provide new useful data for the selection and characterization of yeast strains to be used in the winemaking industry.
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