Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine-to-serine genetic-code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the Candida albicans gene catalogue, identifying many new genes.
"The biosynthetic pathways for ergosterol and steroids have been studied mostly in model organisms such as Kluveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in those that cause public health problems, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (Goffeau et al., 1996; Dujon et al., 2004; Jones et al., 2004; Nierman et al., 2005; Butler et al., 2009). However, there is little information on the steroid "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11) that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR). Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea.
"However, bioinformatic studies of whole genome sequences revealed the existence of both opposite alleles of the mating-type locus (MAT), and population genetics studies revealed genetic recombination within the population. These advances first suggested sexual reproduction is an integral life cycle feature for these and other fungal species that have been thought to be asexual (Butler et al., 2009; Ene and Bennett, 2014; Heitman, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and can undergo both bisexual and unisexual mating. Despite the fact that one mating type is dispensable for unisexual mating, the two sexual cycles share surprisingly similar features. Both mating cycles are affected by similar environmental factors and regulated by the same pheromone response pathway. Recombination takes place during unisexual reproduction in a fashion similar to bisexual reproduction and can both admix pre-existing genetic diversity and also generate diversity de novo just like bisexual reproduction. These common features may allow the unisexual life cycle to provide phenotypic and genotypic plasticity for the natural Cryptococcus population, which is predominantly α mating type, and to avoid Muller's ratchet. The morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth during both bisexual and unisexual mating may provide increased opportunities for outcrossing and the ability to forage for nutrients at a distance. The unisexual life cycle is a key evolutionary factor for Cryptococcus as a highly successful global fungal pathogen.
"Nonetheless, formation of allotriploids such as AWRI1499 and AWRI1608 most likely required some form of sexual cycle and there has been substantial loss-of-heterozygosity across the genomes of the two sequenced diploid strains, which in S. cerevisiae is associated with genome renewal through homothallism (Mortimer et al., 1994). Signatures of sex in genome assemblies are difficult to assess and predictions based solely upon presence or absence of key orthologs have proven inaccurate – for example, both sexual and asexual Candida species are missing some of the same notionally key genes involved in fungal meiosis (Butler et al., 2009), implying "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brettanomyces bruxellensis, like its wine yeast counterpart Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is intrinsically linked with industrial fermentations. In wine, B. bruxellensis is generally considered to contribute negative influences on wine quality, whereas for some styles of beer it is an essential contributor. More recently, it has shown some potential for bioethanol production. Our relatively poor understanding of B. bruxellensis biology, at least when compared with S. cerevisiae, is partly due to a lack of laboratory tools. As it is a non-model organism, efforts to develop methods for sporulation and transformation have been sporadic and largely unsuccessful. Recent genome sequencing efforts are now providing B. bruxellensis researchers unprecedented access to gene catalogues, the possibility of performing transcriptomic studies, and new insights into evolutionary drivers. This review summarises these findings, emphasises the rich datasets already available yet
FEMS Yeast Research 08/2014; 14(7). DOI:10.1111/1567-1364.12198 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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