Dexmedetomidine suppresses the decrease in blood pressure during anesthetic induction and blunts the cardiovascular response to tracheal intubation

Department of Anesthesiology, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan.
Journal of clinical anesthesia (Impact Factor: 1.21). 06/2009; 21(3):194-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.08.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with fentanyl on hemodynamics.
Prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.
Operating room of a university hospital.
30 ASA physical status II and III patients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular disease.
Patients were assigned to one of three groups: Group D-F2 [dexmedetomidine, effect-site concentration (ESC) of fentanyl = two ng/mL]; Group F2 (placebo, ESC of fentanyl = two ng/mL), or Group F4 (placebo, ESC of fentanyl = 4 ng/mL).
Dexmedetomidine (an initial dose of 1.0 microg/kg for 10 min, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.7 microg x kg(-1) x hr(-1)) or placebo saline was administered 15 minutes before anesthetic induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl using a target-controlled infusion system. Hemodynamic parameters: systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and heart rate (HR) during anesthetic induction were measured and the percent changes were calculated for both induction and intubation.
After inducing anesthesia, SBP was significantly higher in Group D-F2 (127 +/- 24 mmHg) than Group F2 (90 +/- 20 mmHg) or Group F4 (77 +/- 21 mmHg). The SBP in Groups F2 and F4 reached 160 +/- 31 mmHg and 123 +/- 36 mmHg, respectively, after intubation, but no significant change in SBP was noted in Group D-F2. The percent increase in SBP due to tracheal intubation in Group D-F2 was 3% +/- 4% and was significantly lower than that of Group F2 (70% +/- 34%) or Group F4 (45% +/- 36%).
Dexmedetomidine combined with fentanyl during anesthetic induction suppresses the decrease in blood pressure due to anesthetic induction and also blunts the cardiovascular response to tracheal intubation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation produce sympathetic overdrive by catecholamine release resulting in hypertension and tachycardia. Various agents are being tried to combat the intubation response over years. This study is aimed at comparing dexmedetomidine which is a highly selective alpha-2 agonist with an ultra-short acting beta blocker, esmolol to see which among the two is better in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. This was a prospective randomized double-blind control study. Sixty patients scheduled for general anesthesia were divided into two groups, D and E with 30 patients in each group. Group-D patients received dexmedetomidine 0.5 mcg/kg and Group-E patients received esmolol 0.5 mg/kg as intravenous premedication over 5 min before a rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures along with heart rate were measured using invasive arterial line at various time points. The percentage change of hemodynamic parameters at those time points from the baseline was compared between the groups. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The percentage change of all hemodynamic parameters from base line were less in the dexmedetomidine group than in esmolol group at all-time points of measurement. However, a statistically significant difference was observed often at the time points within 1 min after tracheal intubation. Dexmedetomidine is superior to esmolol in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
    09/2014; 8(3):383-387. DOI:10.4103/0259-1162.143154
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported the cardioprotective effect of dexmedetomidine and lidocaine. We compared the effect of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine infusion during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB).
    Contemporary Clinical Trials 11/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.10.005 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perioperative hemodynamic fluctuations are seen more often in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients. The purpose of our study was to investigate the perioperative hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam used for premedication in hypertensive patients relative to each other and in comparison to normotensive patients. One-hundred-forty female, normotensive or hypertensive patients undergoing myomectomies or hysterectomies. They were randomly enrolled into the subgroups: Group ND (normotensive-dexmedetomidine); Group HD (hypertensive-dexmedetomine); Group NM (normotensive-midazolam); Group HM (hypertensive- midazolam). Dexmedetomidine was administered at a concentration of 0.5 μ, and midazolam was administered at a concentration of 0.025 μ via intravenous (IV) infusion before the induction of anaesthesia. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded at several times (T(beginning), T(preop5 min), T(preop 10 min), T(induction), T(intubation), T(intubation 5 min), T(initial surgery), T(surgery 15 min), T(surgery 30 min), T(extubation), T(extubation 5 min)). Propofol amount for induction, time between induction and initial surgery, demand of antihypertensive therapy, rescue atropine were recorded. Quantitative clinical and demographic characteristics were compared using One Way ANOVA. The values were compared using One-way Analysis of Variance. Additionally periodic variations were examined by One way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance for groups separately. SBP was significantly different between normotensive and hypertensive groups at the following time points: T(preop 5 min), T(preop 10 min), T(induction), T(intubation), T(intubation 5 min) and T(initial surgery). MBP was significantly different in the hypertensive groups at T(induction), T(intubation), T(intubation 5 min), T(initial surgery), T(surgery 15 min), T(surgery 30 min), T(extubation) and T(extubation 5 min). The perioperative requirements for antihypertensive drugs were significantly higher in Group HM. In the hypertensive patients, dexmedetomidine premedication provides better hemodynamic stability compared with midazolam, and because it decreases the antihypertensive requirements, its use might be beneficial. identifier: NCT02058485.
    BMC Anesthesiology 12/2014; 14:113. DOI:10.1186/1471-2253-14-113 · 1.33 Impact Factor