Expression and inducibility of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 by beta-naphthoflavone and CYP2B22, 3A22, 3A29, 3A46 by rifampicin in the respiratory and olfactory mucosa of pig.
ABSTRACT The presence and inducibility of specific CYPs (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29 and 3A46) and the related transcriptional factors (AhR, CAR, PXR, and HNF4alpha) were investigated, at activity and/or transcriptional level, in liver, respiratory and olfactory mucosa of control and beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF)-treated pigs an agonist of AhR, or rifampicin (RIF), an agonist of PXR. Experiments with real-time PCR showed that CYP1A1 mRNA was enhanced by betaNF, although at different extent, in liver, respiratory and olfactory tissues, whereas mRNAs of CYP1A2 and 1B1 were increased only in liver. Accordingly, in microsomes of both nasal tissues, the transcriptional activation of CYP1A1 was accompanied by an induction of ethoxyresorufin deethylase activity (a marker of this isoform) but not of methoxyresorufin demethylase activity (a marker of CYP1A2). The rifampicin treatment resulted in a transcriptional activation of CYP2B22 and CYP3As genes in liver but not in respiratory and olfactory mucosa. In parallel, the marker activity of CYP2B (ethoxy 4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin deethylase) and CYP3As (6beta-testosterone hydroxylase and benzyloxyquinoline debenzylase) were induced in liver microsomes but not in the nasal ones. Considering the transcriptional factors, the basal expression of AhR mRNA was found to be as high in liver as in both nasal tissues but not susceptible to induction by betaNF. Also PXR mRNA was found, aside liver, well expressed in the nasal tissues, whereas CAR and HNF4alpha mRNAs were barely detected. In any case, these transcripts appeared to be enhanced by RIF treatment. Our results demonstrated that in the respiratory and olfactory mucosa of pig, although the presence of AhR, only CYP1A1, but not 1A2 and 1B1 resulted to be inducible by betaNF. Similarly, it was observed that in these nasal tissues, although the presence of PXR, neither CYP2B22 nor any CYP3A resulted to be inducible by RIF. Thus, the regulation mechanism of CYP1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29, and 3A46, in the nasal mucosa involves tissue-enriched transcriptional factors others than AhR, CAR, PXR, and HNF4alpha, which are fundamental in liver.
Article: Identification and validation of novel human pregnane X receptor activators among prescribed drugs via ligand-based virtual screening.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) plays a key role in regulating metabolism and clearance of endogenous and exogenous substances. Identification of novel hPXR activators among commercial drugs may aid in avoiding drug-drug interactions during coadministration. We applied ligand-based computational approaches for virtual screening of a commonly prescribed drug database (SCUT). Bayesian classification models were generated with a training set comprising 177 compounds using Fingerprints and 117 structural descriptors. A cell-based luciferase reporter assay was used for evaluation of chemical-mediated hPXR activation in HepG2 cells. All compounds were tested at 10 μM concentration with rifampicin and dimethyl sulfoxide as positive and negative controls, respectively. The Bayesian models showed specificity and overall prediction accuracy up to 0.92 and 0.69 for test set compounds. Screening the SCUT database with this model retrieved 105 hits and 17 compounds from the top 25 hits were chosen for in vitro testing. The reporter assay confirmed that nine drugs, i.e., fluticasone, nimodipine, nisoldipine, beclomethasone, finasteride, flunisolide, megestrol, secobarbital, and aminoglutethimide, were previously unidentified hPXR activators. Thus, the present study demonstrates that novel hPXR activators can be efficiently identified among U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved and commonly prescribed drugs, which should lead to detection and prevention of potential drug-drug interactions.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 11/2010; 39(2):337-44. · 3.74 Impact Factor