Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins complementation patterns and the role of the ecto- and transmembrane domains.
ABSTRACT We separated E1 and E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a into two individual expression plasmids and replaced the transmembrane domains of 1b and 2a E1 and E2 with that of genotype 1a. The complementation features of E1 and E2 as well as the contributions of both the ecto- and transmembrane domains to the formation of the E1E2 complex were evaluated using the HCV pseudoparticle(s) (HCVpp(s)) system. We demonstrated that 1aE2 could not only complement its native 1aE1, but could also complement 1bE1 as well; in genotype 1b, glycoprotein complex formation is primarily dependent on the overall biological characteristics of the intact native E1 and E2; in genotype 2a, although the interaction of intact native E1 and E2 is critical for the formation of the glycoprotein complex, the ectodomain made a greater contribution than that of the transmembrane domain. Our study provides valuable findings regarding HCV E1 and E2 biology and will be of use in both anti-HCV strategy and understanding on the mechanisms of coinfection of different HCV strains.
- SourceAvailable from: Jianxin Lu
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- "Retrovirus-based influenza HA/NA pseudoparticle systems have been demonstrated to accurately represent the biology of the corresponding wild-type viruses –, , . For research on HPAI viruses, the use of pseudoparticle systems eliminates not only routine biosafety issues but also the possibility of production of a manmade, highly pathogenic virus. "
ABSTRACT: To study the precise role of the neuraminidase (NA), and its stalk region in particular, in the assembly, release, and entry of influenza virus, we deleted the 20-aa stalk segment from 2009 pandemic H1N1 NA (09N1) and inserted this segment, now designated 09s60, into the stalk region of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 NA (AH N1). The biological characterization of these wild-type and mutant NAs was analyzed by pseudotyped particles (pseudoparticles) system. Compared with the wild-type AH N1, the wild-type 09N1 exhibited higher NA activity and released more pseudoparticles. Deletion/insertion of the 09s60 segment did not alter this relationship. The infectivity of pseudoparticles harboring NA in combination with the hemagglutinin from HPAI H5N1 (AH H5) was decreased by insertion of 09s60 into AH N1 and was increased by deletion of 09s60 from 09N1. When isolated from the wild-type 2009H1N1 virus, 09N1 existed in the forms (in order of abundance) dimer>tetramer>monomer, but when isolated from pseudoparticles, 09N1 existed in the forms dimer>monomer>tetramer. After deletion of 09s60, 09N1 existed in the forms monomer>dimer. AH N1 from pseudoparticles existed in the forms monomer>dimer, but after insertion of 09s60, it existed in the forms dimer>monomer. Deletion/insertion of 09s60 did not alter the NA glycosylation pattern of 09N1 or AH N1. The 09N1 was more sensitive than the AH N1 to the NA inhibitor oseltamivir, suggesting that the infectivity-enhancing effect of oseltamivir correlates with robust NA activity.PLoS ONE 12/2010; 5(12):e15825. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015825 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "HA and NA are envelope proteins located on the viral surface that co-mediate the first stages of viral entry; thus, to achieve successful infection for a given viral strain, the naïve HA and NA should match each other well. Unlike the hepatitis C virus, where the envelope proteins E1 and E2 form a heterodimer for viral entry , HA and NA seem to be discrete on the viral surface, at a ratio of about 4∶1 , so it appears reasonable that the HA should match the NAs in addition to its own spousal NA to reassort , . We demonstrated previously that the chimeric combination of 09 H1+1918 N1 and 1918 H1+09 N1 could form infectious pps . "
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus displays strong reassortment characteristics, which enable it to achieve adaptation in human infection. Surveying the reassortment and virulence of novel viruses is important in the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic. Meanwhile, studying the mechanism of reassortment may accelerate the development of anti-influenza strategies. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) matching patterns of two pandemic H1N1 viruses (the 1918 and current 2009 strains) and a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) were studied using a pseudotyped particle (pp) system. Our data showed that four of the six chimeric HA/NA combinations could produce infectious pps, and that some of the chimeric pps had greater infectivity than did their ancestors, raising the possibility of reassortment among these viruses. The NA of H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/2005) could hardly reassort with the HAs of the two H1N1 viruses. Many biological characteristics of HA and NA, including infectivity, hemagglutinating ability, and NA activity, are dependent on their matching pattern. Our data suggest the existence of an interaction between HA and NA, and the HA NA matching pattern is critical for valid viral reassortment.PLoS ONE 02/2010; 5(2):e9167. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0009167 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "HCV is classified in the family Flaviviridae genus hepacivirus, with six major genotypes and multiple serotypes. It was first identified in 1989 and can be transmitted in a manner similar to HBV –. Hepatitis C is generally asymptomatic, with a strong tendency (up to 80%) for progression to persistent infection –. Both HCV and HBV chronically infected patients may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma . "
ABSTRACT: Viral hepatitis is a serious health burden worldwide. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E in China. Therefore, the general epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a serological prevalence analysis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in 8,762 randomly selected Chinese subjects, which represented six areas of China. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) was 0.58%, which was much lower than was estimated by WHO. The prevalences of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis B virus surface protein antibody (HBsAb), and anti-Hepatitis B virus core protein antibody (HBcAb) were 5.84%, 41.31%, and 35.92%, respectively, whereas in the group of subjects less than 5 years old, these prevalences were 1.16%, 46.77%, and 8.69% respectively, which suggests that the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier population is decreasing, and the nationwide HBV vaccine program has contributed to the lowered HBV prevalence in the younger generation in China. Meanwhile, a large deficit remains in coverage provided by the national HBV immune program. In addition, our data suggested the possibility that HBsAb may not last long enough to protect people from HBV infection throughout life. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis A virus antibody (anti-HAV) and anti-Hepatitis E virus antibody (anti-HEV) were as high as 72.87% and 17.66%, respectively. The indices increased with age, which suggests that a large proportion of Chinese adults are protected by latent infection. Furthermore, the pattern of HEV infection was significantly different among ethnic groups in China. Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis.PLoS ONE 12/2009; 4(12):e8467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008467 · 3.23 Impact Factor