Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins complementation patterns and the role of the ecto- and transmembrane domains.
ABSTRACT We separated E1 and E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a into two individual expression plasmids and replaced the transmembrane domains of 1b and 2a E1 and E2 with that of genotype 1a. The complementation features of E1 and E2 as well as the contributions of both the ecto- and transmembrane domains to the formation of the E1E2 complex were evaluated using the HCV pseudoparticle(s) (HCVpp(s)) system. We demonstrated that 1aE2 could not only complement its native 1aE1, but could also complement 1bE1 as well; in genotype 1b, glycoprotein complex formation is primarily dependent on the overall biological characteristics of the intact native E1 and E2; in genotype 2a, although the interaction of intact native E1 and E2 is critical for the formation of the glycoprotein complex, the ectodomain made a greater contribution than that of the transmembrane domain. Our study provides valuable findings regarding HCV E1 and E2 biology and will be of use in both anti-HCV strategy and understanding on the mechanisms of coinfection of different HCV strains.
- SourceAvailable from: Marcello Merola[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The recombinant E1E2 heterodimer of the hepatitis C virus is a candidate for a subunit vaccine. Folding analysis of E1 and E2 glycoproteins, stably expressed in CHO cells, showed that E1 folding was faster and more efficient than E2. The oxidized DTT-resistant conformation of E1 was completed within 2 h post-synthesis, while E2 not only required up to 6 h but also generated non-native species. Calnexin was found to assist E1 folding, whereas no chaperone association was found with E2. The assembly of E1 and E2 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and sedimentation velocity analysis. We found that the formation of native E1E2 heterodimers paralleled E2 oxidation kinetics, suggesting that E2 completed its folding process after association with E1. Once formed, sedimentation of the native E1E2 heterodimers was consistent with the absence of additional associated factors. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that productive folding of the major HCV spike protein E2 is assisted by E1.Virology 03/2005; 332(1):438-53. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- Journal of Viral Hepatitis 01/1999; 6:41-46. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because of the lack of a robust cell culture system, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the cell entry mechanism for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recently, we described infectious HCV pseudo-particles (HCVpp) that were generated by incorporating unmodified HCV E1E2 glycoproteins into the membrane of retroviral core particles. These initial studies, performed with E1E2 glycoproteins of genotype 1, noted that HCVpp closely mimic the cell entry and neutralization properties of parental HCV. Because sequence variations in E1 and E2 may account for differences in tropism, replication properties, neutralization, and response to treatment in patients infected with different genotypes, we investigated the functional properties of HCV envelope glycoproteins from different genotypes/subtypes. Our studies indicate that hepatocytes were preferential targets of infection in vitro, although HCV replication in extrahepatic sites has been reported in vivo. Receptor competition assays using antibodies against the CD81 ectodomain as well as ectopic expression of CD81 in CD81-deficient HepG2 cells indicated that CD81 is used by all the different genotypes/subtypes analyzed to enter the cells. However, by silencing RNA (siRNA) interference assays, our results show that the level of Scavenger Receptor Class-B Type-I (SR-BI) needed for efficient infection varies between genotypes and subtypes. Finally, sera from chronic HCV carriers were found to exhibit broadly reactive activities that inhibited HCVpp cell entry, but failed to neutralize all the different genotypes. In conclusion, we characterize common steps in the cell entry pathways of the major HCV genotypes that should provide clues for the development of cell entry inhibitors and vaccines.Hepatology 03/2005; 41(2):265-74. · 12.00 Impact Factor