Complement component 5a (C5a).
ABSTRACT The 74 amino acid glycoprotein, complement component 5a (C5a), is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator cleaved enzymatically from its precursor, C5, upon activation of the complement cascade. C5a is quickly metabolised by carboxypeptidases, forming the less potent C5adesArg. Acting via a classical G protein-coupled receptor, CD88, C5a and C5adesArg exert a number of effects essential to the innate immune response, while their actions at the more recently discovered non-G protein-coupled receptor, C5L2 (or GPR77), remain unclear. The widespread expression of C5a receptors throughout the body allows C5a to elicit a broad range of effects. Thus, C5a has been found to be a significant pathogenic driver in a number of immuno-inflammatory diseases, making C5a inhibition an attractive therapeutic strategy.
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) is a leading cause of illness and death, mainly in the (sub)tropics, where it causes dengue fever and/or the more serious diseases dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome that are associated with changes in vascular permeability. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of DENV is still poorly understood and, although endothelial cells represent the primary fluid barrier of the blood vessels, the extent to which these cells contribute to DENV pathology is still under debate. The primary target cells for DENV are dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages that release various chemokines and cytokines upon infection, which can activate the endothelium and are thought to play a major role in DENV-induced vascular permeability. However, recent studies indicate that DENV also replicates in endothelial cells and that DENV-infected endothelial cells may directly contribute to viremia, immune activation, vascular permeability and immune targeting of the endothelium. Also, the viral non-structural protein-1 and antibodies directed against this secreted protein have been reported to be involved in endothelial cell dysfunction. This review provides an extensive overview of the effects of DENV infection on endothelial cell physiology and barrier function. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Reviews in Medical Virology 11/2014; 25(1). · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complement cascade is a highly sophisticated network of proteins that are well regulated and directed in response to invading pathogens or tissue injury. Complement C3a and C5a are key mediators produced by this cascade, and their dysregulation has been linked to a plethora of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, this has stimulated interest in the development of ligands for the receptors for these complement peptides, C3a receptor, and C5a1 (C5aR/CD88). In this study we used computational methods to design novel C5a1 receptor ligands. However, functional screening in human monocyte-derived macrophages using the xCELLigence label-free platform demonstrated altered specificity of our ligands. No agonist/antagonist activity was observed at C5a1, but we instead saw that the ligands were able to partially agonize the closely related complement receptor C3a receptor. This was verified in the presence of C3a receptor antagonist SB 290157 and in a stable cell line expressing either C5a1 or C3a receptor alone. C3a agonism has been suggested to be a potential treatment of acute neutrophil-driven traumatic pathologies, and may have great potential as a therapeutic avenue in this arena.European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
Article: Complement in neurobiologyFrontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16(1):2921. · 4.25 Impact Factor