Complement component 5a (C5a).
ABSTRACT The 74 amino acid glycoprotein, complement component 5a (C5a), is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator cleaved enzymatically from its precursor, C5, upon activation of the complement cascade. C5a is quickly metabolised by carboxypeptidases, forming the less potent C5adesArg. Acting via a classical G protein-coupled receptor, CD88, C5a and C5adesArg exert a number of effects essential to the innate immune response, while their actions at the more recently discovered non-G protein-coupled receptor, C5L2 (or GPR77), remain unclear. The widespread expression of C5a receptors throughout the body allows C5a to elicit a broad range of effects. Thus, C5a has been found to be a significant pathogenic driver in a number of immuno-inflammatory diseases, making C5a inhibition an attractive therapeutic strategy.
Article: Complement in neurobiologyFrontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16(1):2921. DOI:10.2741/3890 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) is a leading cause of illness and death, mainly in the (sub)tropics, where it causes dengue fever and/or the more serious diseases dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome that are associated with changes in vascular permeability. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of DENV is still poorly understood and, although endothelial cells represent the primary fluid barrier of the blood vessels, the extent to which these cells contribute to DENV pathology is still under debate. The primary target cells for DENV are dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages that release various chemokines and cytokines upon infection, which can activate the endothelium and are thought to play a major role in DENV-induced vascular permeability. However, recent studies indicate that DENV also replicates in endothelial cells and that DENV-infected endothelial cells may directly contribute to viremia, immune activation, vascular permeability and immune targeting of the endothelium. Also, the viral non-structural protein-1 and antibodies directed against this secreted protein have been reported to be involved in endothelial cell dysfunction. This review provides an extensive overview of the effects of DENV infection on endothelial cell physiology and barrier function. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Reviews in Medical Virology 01/2015; 25(1). DOI:10.1002/rmv.1818 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The specific role of C5a in cancer, especially in melanoma, has yet to be determined. Differential effects of C5a could be cancer specific. In the host defense system, C5a functions to protect the body from harmful entities via a plethora of mechanisms. Yet, C5a may also serve to potentiate cancerous process. C5a facilitates cellular proliferation and regeneration by attracting myeloid-derived suppressor cells and supporting tumor promotion. In this article, we critically reviewed the properties, mechanisms of action and functions of C5a, with particular emphasis on cancer inhibition and promotion, and clinical application of such knowledge in better management of patients with cancer. Outstanding questions and future directions in regard to the function of C5a in melanoma and other cancers are discussed.Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 11/2014; 11(2):1-9. DOI:10.1586/1744666X.2015.983081 · 3.34 Impact Factor