Article

Retinoic Acid Promotes Limb Induction through Effects on Body Axis Extension but Is Unnecessary for Limb Patterning

Development and Aging Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Current biology: CB (Impact Factor: 9.92). 07/2009; 19(12):1050-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.04.059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) is thought to be a key signaling molecule involved in limb bud patterning along the proximodistal or anteroposterior axes functioning through induction of Meis2 and Shh, respectively. Here, we utilize Raldh2-/- and Raldh3-/- mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis to demonstrate that RA signaling is not required for limb expression of Shh and Meis2. We demonstrate that RA action is required outside of the limb field in the body axis during forelimb induction but that RA is unnecessary at later stages when hindlimb budding and patterning occur. We provide evidence for a model of trunk mesodermal RA action in which forelimb induction requires RA repression of Fgf8 in the developing trunk similar to how RA controls somitogenesis and heart development. We demonstrate that pectoral fin development in RA-deficient zebrafish embryos can be rescued by an FGF receptor antagonist SU5402. In addition, embryo ChIP assays demonstrate that RA receptors bind the Fgf8 promoter in vivo. Our findings suggest that RA signaling is not required for limb proximodistal or anteroposterior patterning but that RA inhibition of FGF8 signaling during the early stages of body axis extension provides an environment permissive for induction of forelimb buds.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ovidiu Sirbu, Mar 18, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
136 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism that controls digit formation has long intrigued developmental and theoretical biologists, and many different models and mechanisms have been proposed. Here we review models of limb development with a specific focus on digit and long bone formation. Decades of experiments have revealed the basic signalling circuits that control limb development, and recent advances in imaging and molecular technologies provide us with unprecedented spatial detail and a broader view on the regulatory networks. Computational approaches are important to integrate the available information into a consistent framework that will allow us to achieve a deeper level of understanding and that will help with the future planning and interpretation of complex experiments, paving the way to in silico genetics. Previous models of development had to be focused on very few, simple regulatory interactions. Algorithmic developments and increasing computing power now enable the generation and validation of increasingly realistic models that can be used to test old theories and uncover new mechanisms.
    Birth Defects Research Part C Embryo Today Reviews 03/2014; 102(1). DOI:10.1002/bdrc.21057 · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently developed a range of synthetic retinoid analogues which include the compounds EC23 and EC19. They are stable on exposure to light and are predicted to be resistant to the normal metabolic processes involved in the inactivation of retinoids in vivo. Based on the position of the terminal carboxylic acid groups in the compounds we suggest that EC23 is a structural analogue of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and EC19 is an analogue of 13-cis retinoic acid. Their effects on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been previously described in vitro and are consistent with this hypothesis. We present herein the first description of the effects of these molecules in vivo. Retinoids were applied to the anterior limb buds of chicken embryos in ovo via ion-exchange beads. We found that retinoid EC23 produces effects on the wing digits similar to ATRA, but does so at two orders of magnitude lower concentration. When larger quantities of EC23 are applied, a novel phenotype is obtained involving production of multiple digit 1s on the anterior limb. This corresponds to differential effects of ATRA and EC23 on sonic hedgehog (shh) expression in the developing limb bud. With EC23 application we also find digit 1 phenotypes similar to thumb duplications described in the clinical literature. EC23 and ATRA are shown to have effects on the entire proximal-distal axis of the limb, including hitherto undescribed effects on the scapula. This includes suppression of expression of the scapula marker Pax1. EC23 also produces effects similar to those of ATRA on the developing face, producing reductions of the upper beak at concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than ATRA. In contrast, EC19, which is structurally very similar to EC23, has novel, less severe effects on the face and rarely alters limb development. EC19 and ATRA are effective at similar concentrations. These results further demonstrate the ability of retinoids to influence embryonic development. Moreover, EC23 represents a useful new tool to investigate developmental processes and probe the mechanisms underlying congenital abnormalities in vertebrates including man.
    Journal of Anatomy 12/2013; 224(4). DOI:10.1111/joa.12147 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls patterning and neuronal differentiation within the hindbrain, but forebrain RA function remains controversial. RA is produced from metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde by retinol dehydrogenase (RDH), followed by metabolism of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH). Previous studies on Raldh2-/- and Raldh3-/- mice demonstrated an RA requirement for GABAergic and dopaminergic differentiation in forebrain basal ganglia, but no RA requirement was observed during early forebrain patterning or subsequent forebrain cortical expansion. However, other studies suggested that RA controls forebrain patterning, and analysis of ethylnitrosourea-induced Rdh10 mutants suggested that RA synthesized in the meninges stimulates forebrain cortical expansion. Results: We generated Rdh10-/- mouse embryos that lack RA activity early in the head and later in the meninges. We observed defects in hindbrain patterning and eye RA signaling, but early forebrain patterning was unaffected. Retinaldehyde treatment of Rdh10-/- embryos from E7-E9 rescues a cranial skeletal defect, resulting in E14.5 embryos lacking meningeal RA activity but maintaining normal forebrain shape and cortical expansion. Conclusions: Rdh10-/- embryos demonstrate that RA controls hindbrain but not early forebrain patterning, while studies on retinaldehyde-rescued Rdh10-/- embryos show that meningeal RA synthesis is unnecessary to stimulate forebrain cortical expansion. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 09/2013; 242(9). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.23999 · 2.67 Impact Factor