Within-person variability in urinary bisphenol A concentrations: Measurements from specimens after long-term frozen storage
ABSTRACT Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic contaminant of food and water associated with adverse developmental effects in laboratory animals. BPA has recently been linked to morbidity in adult humans, but studies of developmental effects in humans are methodologically more difficult. The ability to measure BPA in urine samples after long-term storage could aid in such studies. Because the half-life of BPA is < 6h, a single measurement would be useful only if the environmental exposure is relatively constant over weeks or months. Our aims were to evaluate the stability of BPA in specimens after 22-24 years of storage and to measure within-person temporal variability in urinary BPA.
We measured total BPA concentration by mass spectrometry in first-morning urine samples from 60 premenopausal women. We selected from each woman's stored daily collections three urine samples approximately 2 and 4 weeks apart. Samples were selected from both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle to assess cycle effects. Temporal variability was assessed with mixed model regression and correlations.
BPA levels had an inter-quartile range from 1.1 to 3.1 ng/mg creatinine, slightly higher than levels in specimens from NHANES collected 3-11 years later. The Spearman correlation was approximately 0.5 for samples 2 weeks apart and 0.3 for samples 4 weeks apart. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence levels. BPA tended to increase during the three-year collection period, but not significantly.
The similar distribution to NHANES samples and correlation of BPA levels taken at 2-week intervals provide indirect evidence that BPA is relatively stable during long-term freezer storage. The correlations indicate generally stable exposures over periods of weeks. These findings suggest that developmental effects of BPA exposure could be investigated with measurements from stored urine.
SourceAvailable from: Kurunthachalam Kannan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A, benzophenone-type UV filters, and phthalates are chemicals in high production and use including in a range of personal care products. Exposure of humans to these chemicals has been shown to affect endocrine function. Although short-lived, widespread exposure may lead to continual opportunity for these chemicals to elicit health effects in humans. The association of these chemicals with incident uterine leiomyoma, an estrogen sensitive disease, is not known. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), five benzophenone-type UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2OH-4MeO-BP), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,4OH-BP), 2,2׳-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,2׳OH-4MeO-BP), 2,2׳4,4׳-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (2,2׳4,4׳OH-BP), and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP), and 14 phthalate monoesters were quantified in 495 women who later underwent laparoscopy/laparotomy at 14 clinical sites for the diagnosis of fibroids. Significantly higher geometric mean creatinine-corrected concentrations of BPA, 2,4OH-BP, and 2OH-4MeO-BP were observed in women with than without fibroids [BPA: 2.09 µg/g vs. 1.46 µg/g p=0.004; 2,4OH-BP:11.10 µg/g vs. 6.71 µg/g p=0.01; 2OH-4MeO-BP: 11.31 µg/g vs. 6.10 µg/g p=0.01]. Mono-methyl phthalate levels were significantly lower in women with than without fibroids (1.78 µg/g vs. 2.40 µg/g). However, none of the exposures were associated with a significant odds ratio even when adjusting for relevant covariates. There was a lack of an association between select nonpersistent chemicals and the odds of a fibroid diagnosis.Environmental Research 02/2015; 137. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.028 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to involve genetic and environmental components. This study focused on the plasticizer, Bisphenol-A (BPA). The major pathway for BPA metabolism and excretion is via glucuronidation. To determine whether there was a relationship between BPA exposure and ASD, urine specimens were collected from 46 children with ASD and 52 controls. Free and total BPA concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. The fraction glucuronidated was calculated from the difference. A metabolomics study was done to investigate metabolite distribution in the urine. (i) Most of the BPA excreted in the urine was as the glucuronide; (ii) about 20% of the ASD children had BPA levels beyond the 90th percentile (>50 ng/mL) of the frequency distribution for the total sample of 98 children; (iii) Mann–Whitney U tests and multiple regression analyses found significant differences (P < 0.05) between the groups in total and % bound BPA; and (iv) the metabolomics analyses showed the number of absolute partial correlations >|0.30| between metabolite concentrations and total BPA was ∼3 times greater with the ASD group than the controls (P < 0.001), and the number of absolute partial correlations > |0.30| for % bound BPA was ∼15 times higher with ASD (P < 0.001). The results suggest there is an association between BPA and ASD. Autism Res 2015. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Autism Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/aur.1444 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the within-person variability of urinary BPA levels over two samples collected three years apart in 90 Women's Health Initiative participants. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01–0.44), indicating high within-participant variability relative to the between-person variation. Concordance of BPA quartile over time was low (31.7%) and was unrelated to demographic, behavioral, or dietary factors. A single, or even several, measurements of BPA may not adequately classify long-term exposure in human studies.Environmental Research 10/2014; 135:285–288. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.09.016 · 3.95 Impact Factor