Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments

Department of Psychology, Boston University, MA 02215, USA.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.8). 06/2009; 33(7):1089-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.05.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the 15 years since the publication of two previous reviews on restraint stress much advancement has been made in the field. However, while previous reviews have focused mainly on drug effects, recent research has focused on broader implications in the health fields. This research has placed an increased emphasis on stress effects in physiological, immunological, endocrine and developmental processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders. A major problem with our review was the inability to identify a large number of articles focusing on restraint and immobilization, since those keywords were often omitted from the title or not referred to within the body of the article. It seems likely that additional reviews with extended literature research of this field are required.

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    • "Except naive group, all mice were subjected to restraint stress by confining inside 50 mL conical tube (with 0.5 cm air holes for breathing) after 1 h of drug treatment. Restraint stress was performed 5 h without access of food or water every day, according to the previous description (Buynitsky and Mostofsky, 2009). The restraint process was conducted between 10:00 am and 15:00 pm daily. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil. ICR male mice (10 weeks old) were forced to run for 1 hour, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Each running session was followed by administration of distilled water, Myelophil (50 or 100mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) 1 hour later. Equal proportions of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were extracted using 30% ethanol, and formulated into Myelophil. To evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil, exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests were conducted. Underlying mechanisms, including oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and energy metabolism, were investigated by analyzing skeletal muscle tissues and/or sera. Myelophil significantly increased exercise ability and latency times, and decreased the number of electric shocks and immobility time on exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests compared with control group. Myelophil also significantly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by multiple assays, including enzyme activity assays and western blotting, as well as alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Myelophil normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers in sera. These findings suggest that Myelophil reduces the effects of chronic fatigue, likely by attenuating oxidative and inflammatory responses and normalizing energy metabolism. Consequently, this study provides evidence for the clinical relevance of Myelophil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmacology 07/2015; 764. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.06.055 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Acute stress was induced by movement restraint for 1 or 4 h (Pacák and Palkovitz, 2001; Buynitsky and Mostofsky, 2009). Subjects randomly assigned to be submitted to stress were gently placed in polycarbonate cylinders (20 cm long, 6.5 cm in diameter ) for either 1 or 4 h; these were designed to restrain major head and limb movement. "
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    ABSTRACT: The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for one or four hours, ending 30minutes before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10minutes before the test trial which was performed either one or 24hours after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not one-hour, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed one hour after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24hours after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either one or 24hours after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural brain research 05/2015; 291. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.05.006 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Physical restraint in rodents is a widely used model to investigate stress effects in physiological, neuroend ocrine and immunological processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders (Glavin et al., 1994; Buynitsky and Mostofsky, 2009). The restraint stress can be used in an acute (1–2 days, one period of stress per day) or in a chronic (up to 10 days, one period of stress per day) setting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stress is known to elicit various adaptive or maladaptive responses in the nervous system function. Psychophysical studies have revealed that stress exposure induced the changes in auditory response that can be interpreted as a transient, stress-induced hypersensitivity to sounds. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unresolved. Thus, in this study, we explored the neural activities of auditory cortex (AC) in response to stress. We elicited stress by physically immobilizing rats and recorded the extracellular single-unit activities through the electrodes chronically implanted in the AC of rats. By comparing the spike activities of the same rat before, during and after immobilization, we found temporal and significant changes in the sound-evoked neural activities. In most cases, acute restraint stress enhanced neural responses evoked by pure-tones and click-trains, but in a minority of neurons, stress suppressed responses. The immobilization-induced enhancement was more frequently found in the neurons that originally had a low responsibility for sound stimuli. The enhancement effects on pure-tone response were reflected by an increase of response magnitude, decrease of response latency, and extension of bandwidth of tuning curve (BW). But the spontaneous firing rate and best frequency (BF) remained unchanged. Stress also increased the ability of neural response to synchronize to click-trains, even in the neurons whose response magnitude was not significantly increased. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that stress alters the function of auditory system at the level of AC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 02/2015; 290. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.01.074 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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