Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments

Department of Psychology, Boston University, MA 02215, USA.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 10.28). 06/2009; 33(7):1089-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.05.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the 15 years since the publication of two previous reviews on restraint stress much advancement has been made in the field. However, while previous reviews have focused mainly on drug effects, recent research has focused on broader implications in the health fields. This research has placed an increased emphasis on stress effects in physiological, immunological, endocrine and developmental processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders. A major problem with our review was the inability to identify a large number of articles focusing on restraint and immobilization, since those keywords were often omitted from the title or not referred to within the body of the article. It seems likely that additional reviews with extended literature research of this field are required.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal stress is a group of psychophysiological responses that a pregnant female shows when confronting by a threatening situation. This produces neurochemical changes that may affect hippocampal development of the offspring. To analyze the effects of intrauterine stress on spatial learning and memory of Wistar rat offspring. Wistar rats were divided in two groups: Control and prenatal stress. During the critical period for the development of the central nervous system development (from day 12 to 18 of gestation), the experimental rats were exposed to prenatal stress using a restraint stress model. Control rats were kept under standard housing conditions. At 21-days postpartum, spatial learning and memory were evaluated with the Morris water maze. Intrauterine-stressed offspring showed less weight gain (62.7 +/- 11.7 g) compared to controls (71.3 +/- 7.4 g; t (42) = 2.87; P = 0.006). Spatial learning assessment indicated that intrauterine-stressed animals showed higher escape latencies (63 +/- 14 s) than the control group (49 +/- 13 seg; t (42) = 3.2, P = 0.003). The navigation pattern of the stress group was allocentric as compared to the egocentric strategy shown by controls. No significant statistical differences were found in memory consolidation. Intrauterine stress impairs hippocampal function during postnatal development. The knowledge of deleterious effects of intrauterine stress may be helpful in establishing primary prevention strategies of pregnant women exposed to this risk factor.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 01/2011; 63(3):279-86. · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120263. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120263 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Show more


Available from